It is the 316th day of the year with only 49 days remaining.
1439 - Plymouth, England becomes the first town incorporated by the English Parliament.
1847 - Sir James Young Simpson, a British physician, is the first to use chloroform as an anaesthetic.
1892 - William Pudge Heffelfinger, becomes the first professional American football player on record, participating in his first paid game for the Allegheny Athletic Association.
1927 - Leon Trotsky is expelled from the Soviet Communist Party, leaving Joseph Stalin in undisputed control of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics.
1933 - Hugh Gray takes the first known photos of the Loch Ness Monster.
1944 - The Royal Air Force launches 29 Avro Lancaster bombers and sinks the German battleship Tirpitz, with 12,000 pounds of Tallboy bombs off of Tromsa, Norway.
1948 - In Tokyo, an international war crimes tribunal, sentences seven Japanese military and government officials, including Hideki Tojo, to death.
1969 - Independent investigative journalist Seymour Hersh breaks the My Lai story.
1980 - The NASA space probe Voyager I, makes its closest approach to Saturn and takes the first images of its rings.
1998 - U.S. Vice President Al Gore, signs the Kyoto Protocol, aimed to fight global warming.
2003 - Shanghai Transrapid sets up a new world speed record of 311 mph for commercial railway systems.