Thursday, July 19, 2012

19th of July

It is the 200th day of the year, with only 165 days remaining until the end of the year.

64 - Known as the Great Fire of Rome, a fire begins to burn in the merchant area of Rome and soon burns completely out of control.  According to a popular, but untrue legend, Nero fiddled as the city burned.

1701 - Representatives of the Iroquois Confederacy sign the Nanfan Treaty, ceding a large territory north of the Ohio River to England.

1863 - At Buffington Island in Ohio, Confederate General John Hunt Morgan's raid into the north is mostly thwarted when a large group of his men are captured while trying to escape across the Ohio River.

1919 - Following Peace Day celebrations, marking the end of World War I, ex-servicemen riot and burn down Luton Town Hall.

1942 - German Grand Admiral Karl Donitz orders the last U-boats to withdraw from their United States Atlantic coast positions in response to the effective American convoy system.

1963 - Joe Walker, flies a North American X-15 to a record altitude of 347,800 feet (106,010 meters).  The flight qualifies as a human spaceflight.

1981 - In a private meeting with President Ronald Reagan, French Prime Minister Francois Mitterrand reveals the existence of the Farewell Dossier, a collection of documents showing that the Soviets had beenstealing American technological research and development.

1983 - The first three-dimensional reconstruction of a human head in a CT is published.

Wednesday, July 18, 2012

18th of July

It is the 199th day of the year with on;y 166 days remaining.

390 BC - A Roman army is defeated by raiding Gauls, leading to the subsequent sacking of Rome.

362 AD - Emperor Julian arrives at Antioch with a Roman expeditionary force of 60,000 men, and stays there for nine months to launch a campaign against the Persian Empire.

1863 - At the Battle of Fort Wagner, the first formal engagement of the 54th Massachusetts, an African-American military, fails in their assault on Confederate-held Battery Wagner.

1925 - Adolph Hitler publishes his personal manifesto, Mein Kampf.

1942 - The German test fly the Messerschmitt Me-262 using only its jet engines for the first time.

1944 - Hideki Tojo resigns as Prime Minister of Japan, due to numerous setbacks in the war effort.

1968 - The Intel Corporation is founded in Santa Clara, California.

1969 - After a party on Chappaquiddick Island, Senator Ted Kennedy from Massachusetts drives an Oldsmobile off a bridge and his passenger, Mary Jo Kopechne, dies.

Tuesday, July 17, 2012

17th of July

It is the 198th day of the year and only 167 days are remaining.

1717 - King George I of Great Britain sails down the River Thames with a barge of 50 musicians, where George Frideric Handel's Water Music is premiered.

1771 - Known as the Bloody Falls Massacre, Chipewyan Chief Matonabbee, traveling as the guide to Samuel Hearne on is Arctic overland journey, massacres a group of unsuspecting Inuit.

1918 - On the orders of the Bolshevik Party carried out by Cheka, Tsar Nicholas II of Russia and his immediate family and retainers are murdered at the Ipatiev House in Ekaterinburg, Russia.

1918 - The RMS Carpathia, the ship that rescued the 705 survivors of the Titanic, is sunk off Ireland by the German SM U-55, 5 lives are lost.

1944 - Napalm incendiary bombs are dropped for the first time by American P-38 pilots on a fuel depot at Coutances, near St. Lo, France.

1955 - Disneyland is dedicated and opened by Walt Disney in Anaheim, California.

1989 - It is the first flight of the B-2 Spirit Stealth Bomber.

1998 - A tsunami triggered by an undersea earthquake destroys 10 villages in Papua New Guinea killing an estimated 3,183 leaving 2,000 more unaccounted for and thousands more homeless.

Monday, July 16, 2012

16th of July

It is the 197th day of the year, with only 168 days remaining.

1769 - Father Junipero Serra founds California's first mission, Mission San Diego de Alcala.  Over the following decades, it evolves into the city of San Diego.

1782 - It is the first performance of Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart's opera, Die Entfuhrung aus dem Serail.

1861 - At the order of President Abraham Lincoln, Union troops begin a 25-mile march into Virginia for what will become The First Battle of Bull Run, the first major land battle of the war.

1862 - David Farragut is promoted to rear admiral, becoming the first officer in the United States Navy to hold the rank.

1935 - The world's first parking meter is installed in Oklahoma City, Oklahoma.

1941 - Joe DiMaggio hits safely for the 56th consecutive game, a streak that still stands as a Major League Baseball record.

1942 - The Vel' d'Hiv Roundup occurs, as the government of Vichy France orders the mass arrest of 13,152 Jews who are held at the Winter Velodrome in Paris before deportation to Auschwitz.

1945 - The leaders of the three Allied nations, Winston Churchill (then Clement Atlee), Harry Truman, and Joseph Stalin, meet in the German city of Potsdam to decide the future of Germany.

1945 - The Heavy Cruiser USS Indianapolis leaves San Francisco with parts for the atomic bomb "Little Boy" bound for Tinian Island.  This would be the last time the Indianapolis would be seen by the mainland, she would be torpedoed, two weeks later.

1945 - The Atomic Age begins when the United States successfully detonates a plutonium-based test nuclear weapon at the Trinity site near Alamogordo, New Mexico.

1951 - The Catcher in the Rye by J.D. Salinger, is published for the first time by Little, Brown and Company.

1956 - Ringling Bros. and Barnum and Bailey Circus closes its very last "Big Tent" show in Pittsburgh, due to changing economics all subsequent shows will be held in arenas.

1957 - United States Marine major John Glenn, flies a F8U Crusader supersonic jet from California to New York in 3 hours, 23 minutes, and 8 seconds.  He set a new transcontinental record.

1960 - The USS George Washington, a modified Skipjack class submarine, successfully test fires the first ballistic missile while submerged.

1969 - Apollo 11 is launched from Cape Canaveral, Florida.

1999 - John F. Kennedy, Jr., piloting a Piper Saratoga aircraft, dies when his plane crashes into the Atlantic Ocean off the coast of Martha's Vineyard.  His wife Carolyn Bessette and sister-in-law Lauren Bessette are also killed.

Sunday, July 15, 2012

15th of July

It is the 196th day of the year, with only 169 days remaining.

1799 - The Rosetta Stone is found in the Egyptian village of Rosetta by French Captain Pierre-Francois Bouchard during Napoleon's Egyptian Campaign.

1815 - Napoleon Bonaparte surrenders aboard the HMS Bellerophon.

1870 - Georgia becomes the last of the former Confederate states to be readmitted to the Union.

1910 - In his book Clinical Psychiatry, Emil Kraepelin gives a name to Alzheimer's disease, naming it after his colleague Alois Alzheimer.

1916 - In Seattle, Washington, William Boeing and George Conrad Westervelt incorporate Pacific Aero Products.

1966 - The United States and South Vietnam begin Operation Hastings to push the North Vietnamese out of the DMZ.

1997 - In Miami, Florida, serial killer Andrew Phillip Cunanan guns down Gianni Versace outside his home.

2002 - Anti-Terrorism Court of Pakistan hands down the death sentence to British born Ahmed Omar Saeed Sheikh, and life terms to three others suspected of murdering Wall Street Journal reporter Daniel Pearl.

2003 - AOL Time Warner disbands Netscape Communications Corporation.  The Mozilla Foundation is established on the same day.

Saturday, July 14, 2012

14th of July

It is the 195th day of the year, with 170 days remaining.

1798 - The Sedition Act becomes law in the United States, making it a federal crime to write, publish, or utter false of malicious statements about the United States government.

1865 - the first ascent of the Matterhorn by Edward Whymper and party, four of whom die on the descent.

1911 - Harry Atwood, an exhibition pilot for the Wright Brothers lands his airplane at the South Lawn of the White House.  He is later awarded a Gold medal from President Taft for his feat.

1960 - Jane Goodall arrives at the Gombe Stream Reserve in present-day Tanzania to begin her famous study of chimpanzees.

1969 - The United States $500, $1000, $5000 and $10,000 bills are officially withdrawn from circulation.

2003 - In an effort to discredit U.S. Ambassador Joseph C. Wilson, who had written an article critical of the 2003 invasion of Iraq, Washington Post columnist Robert Novak reveals that Wilson's wife Valerie Plame, is a CIA operative.

Billy the Kid - The American Old West outlaw, is shot and killed by Pat Garrett outside Fort Sumner.

Friday, July 13, 2012

13th of July

It is the 194th day of the year, with only 171 days remaining until the new year.

1863 - In New York City, opponents of conscription begin three days of rioting, which will later be regarded as the worst in U.S. history.

1923 - The Hollywood Sign is officially dedicated in the hills above Los Angeles, It originally reads "Hollywoodland" but the four last letters are dropped after renovation in 1949.

1985 - The Live Aid benefit concert takes place in London an Philadelphia, as well as other venues such as Sydney and Moscow.

1990 - An earthquake with its epicentre in Afghanistan, when an avalanche kills 43 climbers in Camp I on Pik Lenina, Tajikistan.