Wednesday, August 31, 2011

31st of August

It is the 243rd day of the year with 122 days remaining.

12 - Gaius Caligula is born on this date.  He is a Roman Emperor whose reputation pinned him as cruel, extravagant, and sexually perverse.

161 - Commodus, the Roman Emperor is born, and rules the empire from 180 to 192.   He is also recognized for his co-ruling with his father, the famous Marcus Aurelius.
1056 - Byzantine Empress Theodora becomes ill, dying suddenly a few days later without children to succeed the throne, thus ending the Macedonian dynasty.

1218 - Al-Kamil becomes the Sultan of Egypt, Syria, and northern Mesopotamia after the death of his father.

1422 - King Henry V of England dies of dysentery while in France.  Henry VI takes the throne at the age of 9 months old.

1803 - Meriwether Lewis and William Clark start their expedition to the west by leaving Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania at 11 o'clock in the morning.

1864 - During the American Civil War, Union forces led by General William T. Sherman launch an assault on Atlanta, Georgia.

1888 - Mary Ann Nichols is murdered.  She is the first of Jack the Ripper's confirmed victims.

1897 - Thomas Edison patents the Kinetoscope, the first movie projector.

1907 - Count Alexander Izvolsky and Sir Arthur Nicolson sign the St. Petersburg Convention, which results in the Triple Entente Alliance.

1920 - The first radio news is broadcast by 8MK in Detroit, Michigan.

1935 - Frank Robinson, an African-American baseball outfielder is born.  He won the MVP award in both the National and American Leagues, won two World Series, and was a winner of the Triple crown in 1966 (most home runs, runs batted in, and batting average).

1939 - Nazi Germany mounts a staged attack on the Gleiwitz radio station, creating an excuse to attack Poland the following day.

1943 - The USS Harmon, the first Navy ship to be named after a black person, is commissioned.

1962 - Trinidad and Tobago declare their independence from the United Kingdom.

1965 - The Aero Spacelines Super Guppy aircraft makes its first flight.

1973 - Scott Niedermayer, Canadian ice hockey defenseman is born.  He is known for his career that lasted eighteen seasons, his skating stride, and his ability to both lead and join an offensive rush.

1986 - The Soviet passenger liner Admiral Nakhimov sinks in the Black Sea after colliding with the bulk carrier Pyotr Vasev, killing 423 people.

1991 - Kyrgyzstan declares its independence from the former Soviet Union.

1997 - Diana, Princess of Wales, her companion Dodi Al-Fayed and driver Henri Paul die in a car crash in Paris, France.

1998 - North Korea reportedly launches Kwangmyongsong-1, its first satellite.

2005 - A stampeded on Al-Aaimmah bridge in Baghdad, Iraq kills 1,199 people.

Tuesday, August 30, 2011

30th of August

Today is the 242nd day of the year with 123 days remaining until the new year.

1363 - The beginning of the Battle of Lake Poyang, the forces of two Chinese rebel leaders - Chen Youliang and Zhu Yuanzhang - are pitted against each other in what is one of the largest naval battles in history, during the decade of the ailing, Mongol-led Yuan Dynasty.

1797 - Mary Wollstonecraft Shelley, English writer of the novel Frankenstein, is born.

1813 - Creek Red Sticks, kill over 500 settlers (including over 250 armed militia) in Fort Mims, north of Mobile, Alabama.

1836 - The city of Houston is founded by Augustus Chapman Allen and John Kirby Allen, and named in honor of the popular general at the Battle of San Jacinto.

1862 - Confederates under Edmund Kirby Smith rout Union forces under General Horatio Wright, during the Battle of Richmond.

1879 - John Bell Hood, Confederate general during the American Civil War, dies at the age of 48.

1909 - Burgess Shale fossils are discovered by Charles Doolittle Walcott, in the Canadian Rockies of British Columbia.

1914 - The Battle of Tannenberg is fought during the First World War.

1918 - Fanny Kaplan shoots and seriously injures Bolshevik leader Vladimir Lenin.  This, along with the assassination of senior official Moisei Uritsky, prompts the decree for Red Terror.

1918 - American baseball slugger, who played 21 seasons for the Boston Red Sox, Ted Williams is born.

1945 - The city of Hong Kong is liberated from the Japanese by British Armed Forces.

1945 - The Supreme Commander of the Allied Forces, General Douglas MacArthur lands at Atsugi Air Force Base.

1963 - The Hotline between the U.S. and Russia goes into effect.  It is most commonly seen in film and other references as the rotary "red telephone," linked the White House via the National Military Command Center with the Kremlin in the Soviet Union.

1967 - Thurgood Marshall is confirmed as the first African-American Justice of the Supreme Court of the United States.

1974 - A powerful bomb explodes at the Mitsubishi Heavy Industries headquarters in Marunouchi, Tokyo, Japan.  8 people are killed and 378 are injured.  Eight left-wing activists are arrested nearly 9 months later.

1978 - Cliff Lee, American baseball left-handed pitcher is born.

1982 - American tennis star and Grand Slam champion Andy Roddick is born.

1984 - The space shuttle Discovery, takes off on its maiden voyage. 

Monday, August 29, 2011

29th of August

It is the 241st day of the year with 124 days remaining until the end of the year.

Today is also observed as the first day of Thoth, or the first day in the Egyptian calendar.

1350 - The English naval fleet under King Edward III defeats a Castilian fleet of 40 ships during the Battle of Winchelsea.

1541 - The Ottoman Turks capture Buda, the capital of the Hungarian Kingdom.

1632 - English philosopher influential in the Enlightenment, empiricism, and social contract theory, John Locke is born.

1756 - Frederick the Great attacks Saxony, beginning the Seven Years' War.

1758 - The first American Indian Reservation is established, at Indian Mills, New Jersey.

1786 - Shays' Rebellion, an armed uprising of Massachusetts farmers, begins in response to both high debt and extreme tax burdens.

1831 - Michale Faraday discovers electromagnetic induction.  The process is the production of voltage across a conductor moving through a magnetic field.  Motors, generators, and transformers all follow this operation.

1833 - The United Kingdom legislates the abolition of slavery in its empire including its colonies.

1842 - The Treaty of Nanking is signed and thus ends the First Opium War.

1861 - United States Navy squadron captures forts at Hatteras Inlet, North Carolina.

1877 - Brigham Young passes away at the age of 76.  He was the leader of the Latter Day Saint movement, a Western pioneer, founder of Salt Lake City, and known as Mormon Moses.

1885 - Gottlieb Daimler patents the world's first internal combustion motorcycle, the Reitwagen.

1898 - The Goodyear tire company is founded by Frank Seiberling.

1911 - Ishi, considered the last Native American to make contact with European Americans, emerges from the wilderness of northeastern California.

1931 - David T. Abercrombie dies at the age of 64. He was the original founder of the lifestyle outfitters for the elite, Abercrombie & Fitch. 

1944 - The Slovak National Uprising takes place, as nearly 60,000 Slovak troops turn against the Nazis.

1946 - Adolphus Busch III, brewing magnate and president of Anheuser-Busch from 1934 to 1946, dies at the age of  55.

1949 - The Soviet Union tests its first atomic bomb, known as First Lightning at Semipalatinsk, Kazakhstan.

1958 - The United States Air Force Academy opens in Colorado Springs, Colorado.

1966 - The Beatles perform their last concert at Candlestick Park in San Francisco, California.

1977 - American baseball right-handed pitcher, Roy Oswalt is born.

2005 - Hurricane Katrina devastates much of the Gulf Coast, from Louisiana to the Florida Panhandle, killing more than 1,836 people and causing over $80 billion in damages.

Ingrid Bergman - Swedish actress who starred in a variety of European and American films, was born on this day in 1915 and died on this day in 1982.  She won three Academy Awards, two Emmy Awards, and a tony Award.  She is ranked as the fourth greatest female star of American cinema by the American Film Institute.  She is remembered most for her roles in Casablanca and Notorious.


Sunday, August 28, 2011

28th of August

Today is the 240th day of the year and 125 days are remaining.

683 - Kinich Janaab Pakal, ruler of the Maya polity of Palenque for 68 years, passes away at 80 years of age.

1189 - During the Third Crusade, the Crusaders begin the Siege of Acre under Guy of Lusignan.

1349 - Nearly 6,000 Jews are killed in Mainz, Germany because they are accused of being the cause of the plague.

1609 - Henry Hudson discovers the Delaware Bay, the outlet of the Delaware River.

1619 - Ferdinand II is elected the emperor of the Holy Roman Empire.

1859 - A geomagnetic storm causes the Aurora Borealis to shine so brightly, that it is seen clearly over parts of the United States, Europe and even Japan.

1867 - The United States takes possession of the unoccupied Midway Atoll in the Pacific.

1898 - Caleb Bradham renames his carbonated soft drink "Pepsi-Cola."

1914 - The Royal Navy defeats the German fleet in the Battle of Heligoland Bight.

1940 - American actor, known for his stage work and as Dr. Bob Kelso on Scrubs, Ken Jenkins is born.

1943 - In Denmark, a general strike against the Nazi occupation is started.

1944 - Marsielle and Toulon in France are liberated from the German occupation.

1955 - Black teenager Emmett Till is murdered in Mississippi, galvanizing the nascent of the American Civil Rights Movement.

1957 - Strom Thurmond, begins a filibuster to prevent the Senate from voting on the Civil Rights Act of 1957; the U.S. Senator stopped speaking 24 hours and 18 minutes later, the longest filibuster ever conducted by on single Senator.

1961 - Motown releases what would be its first #1 hit, "Please Mr. Postman" by The Marvelettes.

1963 - Martin Luther King Jr., delivers his "I Have a Dream" speech in Washington, D.C.

1981 - The National Centers for Disease Control, announce a high incidence of pneumocystis and Kaposi's sarcoma.  These will soon be recognized as an immune disorder, which will be called AIDS.

2003 - An electricity blackout cuts off power to around 500,000 people living in south east England and brings 60% of London's underground rail network to a halt.

2005 - Hurricane Katrina begins to make landfall in Louisiana and Mississippi in the afternoon, and brings the most severe damage to Slidell and New Orleans.

Saturday, August 27, 2011

27th of August

It is the 239th day of the year with 126 days remaining until the new year.

410 - The sacking and pillaging of Rome by the Visigoths ends, after nearly three days of death and destruction.

1637 - Charles Calvert, Governor of the Province of Maryland and 3rd Baron Baltimore is born.

1776 - British forces under General William Howe, defeat Americans under General George Washington at the Battle of Long Island.  This occurred on the grounds of what is now Brooklyn, New York.

1789 - The French National Assembly adopts the Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen, proclaiming that "men are born and remain free and equal in rights."

1809 - Hannibal Hamlin, 15th Vice President of the United States is born. 

1813 - French Emperor Napoleon Bonaparte defeats a larger force of Austrians, Russians, and Prussians at the Battle of Dresden.

1828 - Uruguay is formally proclaimed independent at preliminary peace talks brokered by Great Britain between Brazil and Argentina.

1859 - Petroleum is discovered in Titusville, Pennsylvania leading to the world's first commercially successful oil well.

1861 - Union forces attack Cape Hatteras, North Carolina.

1896 - The shortest war in world history occurs between the United Kingdom and Zanzibar.  It last from 9:00 to 9:45.

1908 - Lyndon B. Johnson, 36th President of the United States is born.

1916 - Romania declares war against Austria-Hungary, entering World War I as one of the Allied nations.

1928 - The Kellogg-Briand Pact, outlawing war is signed by the first 15 nations to do so.  Ultimately, 61 nations will sign it.

1939 - The world's first jet aircraft, Heinkel He 178, takes flight.

1943 - Japanese forces decide to evacuate New Georgia Island in the Pacific Theater of Operations during World War II.

1952 - American actor Paul Ruebens, more commonly referred to as Pee-wee Herman, is born.

1963 - Intellectual leader and civil rights activist, W.E.B. Du Bois passes away at the age of 95.

1970 - American Major League Baseball player, Jim Thome is born.  He is the eighth player to hit 600 home runs in the major leagues.

1991 - The European community recognizes the independence of the Baltic states of Estonia, Latvia, and Lithuania.

1991 - Moldova declares independence from the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics.

2003 - Mars makes its closest approach to Earth in nearly 60,000 years, passing 34,646,418 miles.

2007 - The skeletal remains of Alexei Nikolaevich and his sister Anastasia are found near Yekaterinburg, Russia.  The former was the heir apparent of the Imperial Russian throne and the son of Nicholas II and Empress Alexandra Feodorovna.  

Stevie Ray Vaughan - the American electric blues guitarist and singer passes away at the age of 35.  At around 1:00 AM on this date in 1990, the musician was flying by helicopter from East Troy, Wisconsin to Chicago, Illinois with members of Eric Clapton's tour crew.  The helicopter crashed into the side of a 300-foot-high hill.  The influential blues figure and two others died.

Friday, August 26, 2011

26th of August

This is the 238th day of the year and there are 127 days remaining until the end of the year.

1346 - The military supremacy of the English longbow over the French combination of crossbow and armored knights is established at the Battle of Crecy, during the Hundred Years' War.

1498 - Michelangelo is commissioned to carve the Pieta.

1858 - The first news dispatch is sent by telegraph.

1862 - The Second Battle of Bull Run begins during the American Civil War.

1910 - Mother Teresa, Macedonian-born  Indian missionary is born.

1914 - The British Expeditionary Force fights a rear-guard action at the Battle of Le Cateau that briefly checks the German advance.

1939 - The first Major League Baseball game is telecast.  It is a doubleheader between the Cincinnati Reds and the Brooklyn Dodgers at Ebbets Field in Brooklyn, New York.

1942 - Sadly in Chortkiav, Ukraine, at 2:30 AM the German Schutzpolizei starts driving Jews out of their houses and divides them into groups of 120.  They are packed into freight cars and deported nearly 2000 people to the Belzec death camp.  Almost 500 of the sick and children are murdered on the spot.

1945 - First United States Secretary of Homeland Security, Tom Ridge is born.

1957 - The USSR announces the successful test of an ICBM, a "super long distance intercontinental multistage ballistic rocket...a few days ago," as reported by the ITAR-TASS.

1980 - American actor known for his roles in the Home Alone series, Macaulay Culkin is born.

1980 - American cartoonist Tex Avery passes away at the age of 72.  He is known for his work in creating Daffy Duck, Bugs Bunny, Droopy, Screwy Squirrel, and Porky Pig.

1974 - American aviator Charles Lindbergh, dies at the age of 72.

Thursday, August 25, 2011

25th of August

It is the 237th day of the year with 128 days remaining until the new year.

383 - Gratian, the great Roman Emperor dies at 84 years of age.

1530 - Ivan IV Vasilyevich, also known as "Ivan the Terrible," Tsar of All Russia is born.

1537 - The Honourable Artillery Company, the oldest surviving regiment in the British Army, and the second most senior, is formed.

1609 - Galileo Galilei demonstrates his first telescope to Venetian lawmakers.

1825 - Uruguay declares its independence from Brazil.

1894 - Kitasato Shibasaburo discovers the infectious agent of the bubonic plague and publishes his findings in The Lancet.

1898 - 700 Greek civilians, 17 British guards, and the British Consul of Crete are killed by a Turkish mon in Heraklion, Greece.

1900 - German philosopher, known for his style on radical questioning and the value of objectivity of truth, Friedrich Nietzche is born.

1911 - Vo Nguyen Giap, North Vietnamese general and statesman is born.

1914 - The University Library of Leuven is deliberately destroyed by the German Army.  Hundreds of thousands of irreplaceable volumes and Gothic and Renaissance manuscripts are lost.

1916 - The United States National Park Service is created.

1933 - The Diexi earthquake strikes Mao County, Sichuan, China, and kills nearly 9,000 people.

1942 - The second day of the Battle of the Eastern Solomons, a Japanese naval transport convoy headed towards Guadalcanal is turned-back by an Allied air attack.  The Imperial Navy loses one destroyer, one transport, and one light cruiser heavily damaged.

1944 - The city of Paris, France is liberated from German occupation by Allied forces.

1946 - American Major League Baseball relief pitcher, Rollie Fingers is born.

1948 - The House Un-American Activities Committee, holds its first-ever televised congressional hearing between Whittaker Chambers and Alger Hiss.

1949 - American musician, most famous as the bassist of the rock band KISS, Gene Simmons is born.

1958 - Tim Burton, American film director, producer, writer and artist, know for his dark, quirky-themed movies, is born.

1981 - Voyager 2 spacecraft makes its closest approach to Saturn.

1984 - Waite Hoyt, one of the most dominant pitcher's of the 1920s, dies at the age of 84.

1989 - Voyager 2, now makes its closest approach to Neptune, the outermost planet in the solar system.

1991 - Belarus declares its independence from the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics.

1997 - Egon Krenz, a former East German leader, is convicted of ordering a shoot-to-kill policy for guards at the Berlin Wall.

2009 - Edward "Ted" Kennedy, United States Senator from Massachusetts, serving almost 47 years, and was from the prominent Kennedy family, passes away at the age of 77.

Wednesday, August 24, 2011

24th of August

Today is the 236th day of the year, and there are 129 days remaining until the new year.

49 BC - Julius Caesar's general Gaius Scribonius Curio is defeated at the Second Battle of Bagradas River by the Numidians under the command of Publius Attius Varus and the orders of King Juba.  Roman General Curio commits suicide to avoid being captured.

79 AD - The great Mount Vesuvius erupts.  The cities of Pompeii, Herculaneum, and Stabiae, are buried in volcanic ash.  (It is significant to note that the traditional date has been challenged, and many scholars believe that the event occurred on October 24).

410 - The Visigoths under their leader Alaric, begin the pillaging of the city of Rome.

1200 - King John of England, signee of the first Magna Carta, marries Isabella of Angouleme in the Bordeaux Cathedral.

1349 - Over six thousand Jews are killed in Mainz after being blamed for the bubonic plague.

1456 - The printing of the Gutenberg Bible is completed.

1680 - Thomas Blood dies at the age of 62.  He was an Irish Colonel, best known for attempting to steal the Crown Jewels of England from the Tower of London in 1671.

1682 - William Penn receives the area that is now the state of Delaware, and adds it to his colony of Pennsylvania.

1814 - British troops invade Washington, D.C. and burn down the White House and several other buildings during the War of 1812.

1821 - The Treaty of Cordoba is signed, what is today Veracruz, concluding the Mexican War of Independence from Spain.

1831 - Charles Darwin is asked to travel aboard the HMS Beagle as a young naturalist, and his work eventually made it one of the most famous ships in history.

1857 - The Panic of 1857 begins, setting off one of the most severe economic crises in United States History.

1875 - Captain Matthew Webb became the first person to swim the English Channel.

1891 - Thomas Edison patents the motion picture camera.

1909 - Workers commence the pouring of concrete for the Panama Canal.

1912 - Alaska becomes a United States territory.

1932 -Amelia Earhart becomes the first woman to fly across the United States non-stop, from Los Angeles, California to Newark, New Jersey.

1942 - During the Battle of Eastern Solomon Islands, the Japanese aircraft carrier Ryujo is sunk and the United States carrier Enterprise is heavily damaged.

1949 - The treaty that essentially creates the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) goes into effect.

1963 - As a result of the Xa Loi Pagoda raids, the U.S. State Department contacts the Embassy in Saigon to encourage South Vietnamese generals to launch a coup against President Diem if he did not remove his brother Ngo Dinh Nhu.

1981 - Mark David Chapman is sentenced to 20 years to life in prison for murdering musician John Lennon.

1989 - Cincinnati Reds manager Pete Rose, is banned from baseball for gambling by Commissioner A. Bartlett Giamatti.

1991 - Mikhail Gorbachev resigns as the head of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union.

1991 - Ukraine officially declares itself independent from the Soviet Union.

1995 - The computer software developer Microsoft releases its operating system Windows 95.

2006 - The International Astronomical Unit (IAU) redefines the term "planet" such that Pluto is now considered a Dwarf Planet.

Tuesday, August 23, 2011

23rd of August

Today is the 235th day of the year with 130 days remaining until the end of the year.

79 - Mount Vesuvius begins stirring and causing slight tremors.  Interestingly enough, it is on the feast of Vulcan, the Roman god of fire.

1305 - William Wallace, Scottish patriot, is hung, drawn, and quartered for high treason by Edward I of England.

1775 - King George III declares that the American colonies exist in a state of open and avowed rebellion.

1784 - Western North Carolina, now eastern Tennessee, declares itself an independent state under the name of Franklin, it wasn't accepted in the the United States, and only last four years.

1799 - Napoleon Bonaparte leaves Egypt for France en route to seize power.

1839 - The United Kingdom captures Hong Kong as a base as it prepares for war with Qing China.  The ensuing three-year conflict will later be known as the First Opium War.

1864 - The Union Navy captures Fort Morgan, Alabama, thus breaking Confederate dominance of all ports on the Gulf of Mexico.

1914 - The Battle of Mons during the First World War, was the first major action of the British Expeditionary Force and they attempted to hold the line of the Mons-Conde Canal against the advancing German First Army.

1923 - Captain Lowell Smith and Lieutenant John P. Richter performed the first mid-air refueling on De Havilland DH-4B, setting an endurance flight record of 37 hours.

1927 - Ferdinando Sacco and Bartolomeo Vanzetti were executed for the 1920 armed robbery in South Braintree, Massachusetts.

1939 - Germany and the Soviet Union sign a non-aggression treaty, the Molotov-Ribbentrop Pact.  In a secret addition to the pact, the Baltic states of Finland, Romania, and Poland are divided between the two nations.

1942 - It is the beginning of the Battle of Stalingrad during the Second World War.

1943 - Kharkov, in what is today the Ukraine, is liberated as a result of the Battle of Kursk.

1944 - King Michael of Romania dismisses the pro-Nazi government of General Antonescu, who is arrested.  Romania then switches sides from the Axis to the Allies.

1946 - English musician, best known for being the drummer of The Who, Keith Moon is born.

1954 - Marks the first flight of the C-130 Hercules transport aircraft.

1966 - The Lunar Orbiter I, takes the first photograph of Earth from its orbit around the Moon.

1985 - Hans Tiedge, the top counter-spy of West German intelligence, decides to defect to the East.

1990 - Armenia declares its independence from the Soviet Union.

1994 - Eugene Bullard, the only black pilot of World War I, is posthumously commissioned as Second Lieutenant in the United States Air Force.

Commodore Oliver Hazard Perry - American naval officer who was born and died on the same day.  He was born in 1785 in South Kingstown, Rhode Island and passed away in 1819 at the age of 34.  He served in the War of 1812 against Great Britain, and at the age of 27 earned the title of "Hero of Lake Erie," for leading American forces in a decisive naval victory during the Battle of Lake Erie.

Monday, August 22, 2011

22nd of August

It is the 234th day of the year, with 131 days remaining until the new year.

565 - St. Columba reports seeing a monster in Loch Ness, Scotland.

1654 - Jacob Barsimson arrives in New Amsterdam.  He is the first known Jewish immigrant to America.

1770 - James Cook, British navigator and explorer reaches the east coast of Australia with his expedtion.

1791 - This marks the beginning of the Haitian Slave Revolution in Saint-Domingue.

1848 - The United States decides to annex the area of New Mexico.

1849 - The first air raid in history occurs, as Austria launches pilotless balloons against the city of Venice.

1864 - 12 nations sign the First Geneva Convention and the Red Cross is formed.

1902 - The Cadillac Motor Company is founded by Henry Leland.

1902 - Theodore Roosevelt becomes the first United States President to ride in an automobile.

1934 - Norman Schwarzkopf, United States Army General, who was commander of the U.S. Central Command and the Coalition Force in the Persian Gulf War is born.

1941 - German troops reach Leningrad in Russia, leading to the siege of the city.

1944 - Romania is captured by the Soviet Union and German forces are forced out of the region.

1962 - An attempt to assassinate French President Charles de Gaulle fails.

1963 - American Joe Walker, reaches an altitude of 106 km (66 miles), in an X-15 test plane.

1989 - Right-handed baseball pitcher Nolan Ryan, strikes out Rickey Henderson to become the first Major League Baseball pitcher to record 5,000 strikeouts.

2007 - The Texas Rangers rout the Baltimore Orioles with a score of 30 to 3, the most runs scored by a team in modern day baseball history.

Sunday, August 21, 2011

21st of August

It is the 233rd day of the year and 132 days are remaining.

1614 - Elizabeth Bathory dies at 54 years of age.  She was a countess of Hungarian nobility and has been accused of killing hundreds of girls, attributing to over 650 victims.

1680 - Pueblo Indians capture the city of Santa Fe from the Spanish during the Pueblo Revolt.

1754 - Banastre Tarleton, a British soldier who gained notoriety during the American Revolution as an outstanding leader of light cavalry and a ruthless fighter, is born. 

1831 - Nat Turner leads African slaves and free blacks in a rebellion in Virgina, that results in 56 white deaths and 55 black deaths.

1852 - Tlingit Indians destroy Fort Selkirk, Yukon Territory.

1863 - Lawrence, Kansas is destroyed by Confederate guerrillas known as Quantrill's Raiders.

1911 - The Mona Lisa is stolen by an employee of the Louvre in Paris, France.

1918 - The Second Battle of the Somme begins during the First World War.

1936 - Wilt Chamberlain, American basketball player and one of the most dominant players in history, is born.

1940 - Leon Trotsky, Russian Marxist revolutionary and the founder and first leader of the Red Army, is assassinated at his home in Mexico with an ice axe by a secret police agent.  He died as a result of severe brain damage and his life ended at the age of 60.

1942 - American forces defeat an attack by Imperial Japanese Army soldiers in the Battle of the Tenaru.

1952 - Joe Strummer, the British musician and singer of The Clash is born.

1959 - President Dwight D. Eisenhower signs an executive order proclaiming Hawaii the 50th state of the Union.

1963 - The Army of the Republic of Vietnam's Special Forces loyal to Ngo Dinh Nhu, brother of President Ngo Dinh Diem, vandalizes Buddhist pagodas across the country, arresting thousands and leaving an estimated hundreds dead.

1968 - James Anderson Jr., posthumously receives the first Medal of Honor to be awarded to an African American United States Marine.

1971 - George Jackson, a member of the Black Panther Party, co-founder of the Black Guerrilla Family prison gang, was shot to death by prison guards while trying to escape San Quentin Prison.

1986 - Carbon dioxide gas erupts from volcanic Lake Nyos in Cameroon, killing up to 1,800 people within a 20-kilometer range.

1991 - Latvia declares renewal of its full independence after the occupation of the Soviet Union.

2008 - American record producer Jerry Finn, best known for his groundbreaking work with Green Day, Blink-182, Rancid, Sum 41, Morrissey, AFI, Alkaline Trio, and MxPx, passes away at the age of 39.

Saturday, August 20, 2011

20th of August

It is the 232nd day of the year with only 133 days remaining until the end of the year.

1775 - The Spanish establish a presidio, more commonly referred to as a fort, in the town that became Tucson, Arizona.

1794 - American troops force a confederacy of Shawnee, Mingo, Delaware, Wyandot, Miami, Ottawa, Chippewa, and Potawatomi warriors into a disorganized retreat during the Battle of Fallen Timbers.

1804 - The Lewis and Clark Expedition, suffers its only death when Sergeant Charles Floyd dies, apparently from acute appendicitis.

1858 - Charles Darwin first publishes his theory of evolution through natural selection in The Journal of the Proceedings of the Linnean Society of London.

1866 - President Andrew Johnson makes a formal declaration that the American Civil War is over.

1882 - Peter Ilyich Tchaikovsky's 1812 Overture debuts in Moscow.

1910 - The Great Fire of 1910 occurred in northeast Washington, northern Idaho, and western Montana, scorching approximately 3 million acres, nearly 12,000 square kilometers.

1920 - The first commercial radio station, 8MK or WWJ, begins operations in Detroit, Michigan.

1920 - The National Football League is founded in the United States.

1931 - American boxing promoter, known for his hairstyle and flamboyant personality, Don King is born.

1938 - Lou Gehrig hits his 23rd career grand slam - a record that still stands to this day.

1944 - 168 captured Allied airmen, including Phil Lamason, accused by the Gestapo of being "terror fliers," arrive at the Buchenwald concentration camp.

1948 -  Robert Plant, English rock singer and songwriter of Led Zeppelin is born.

1960 - Senegal breaks from the Mali federation, officially declaring its independence.

1975 - The National Aeronautical and Space Administration launches the Viking 1 planetary probe into space, bound for Mars.

1988 - A cease-fire is agreed upon after almost eight years of war, between both Iran and Iraq.

1991 - More than 100,000 people rally outside around the Soviet Union's parliament building protesting the coup aiming to depose President Mikhail Gorbachev.

1991 - Estonia, annexed by the USSR in 1940, issues a decision on the re-establishment of independence on the basis of historical continuity of her pre-World War II statehood.

2008 - Ed "Too Tall" Freeman, a United States Army helicopter pilot who received the Medal of Honor, for his actions in the Battle of Ia Drang during the Vietnam War, passes away at the age of 80.

Friday, August 19, 2011

19th of August

It is the 231st day of the year with 134 days that are remaining until the new year.

43 BC - Octavian, later known as Augustus, compels the Roman Senate to elect him Consul.

14 AD - Augustus, the first Roman emperor, died at the age of 75.

1561 AD - An 18-year-old Mary, Queen of Scots, returns to her homeland after spending nearly 13 years in France.

1612 - Three women from the Lancashire village of Samlesbury, England, are put on trail, and accused for practicing witchcraft, and hanged.  This event led to other trials and a total of ten women were executed.

1692 - In Salem, Massachusetts, one woman and four men are executed after being convicted of witchcraft.  Interestingly enough, one of the men was a clergyman.  Those convicted were George Burroughs, John Willard, George Jacobs Sr., John Proctor, Rebecca Nurse, and Martha Corey.

1782 - The last major engagement of the American Revolutionary War, The Battle of Blue Licks, occurs almost ten months after the surrender of British commander Lord Cornwallis following the Siege of Yorktown.

1812 - The American frigate USS Constitution, defeats the HMS Guerriere off the coast of Nova Scotia, Canada earning her the nickname, "Old Ironsides."

1848 - The New York Herald breaks the news to the East Coast of the United States, of the gold rush in California.  The rush would eventually begin in January.

1871 - American aviation pioneer, Orville Wright is born. 

1895 - American frontier murderer and outlaw, John Wesley Hardin, is killed by an off-duty policeman in a saloon in El Paso, Texas.

1919 - Afghanistan gains its full independence from the United Kingdom.

1934 - The first All-American Soapbox Derby is held in Dayton, Ohio.

1934 - The creation of the position of Fuhrer, is approved by the German electorate with 89.9% of the popular vote.

1940 - It is the first flight of the B-25 Mitchell medium bomber.  It will see heavy use during the Second World War.

1944 - The beginning of the liberation of Paris, as natives and Allied troops fight against the German occupation.

1945 - The Viet Minh led by Ho Chi Minh, take power in Hanoi, Vietnam.

1946 - 42nd President of the United States, Bill Clinton is born.

1960 - In Moscow, downed American pilot Francis Gary Powers is sentenced to ten years imprisonment by the Soviet Union for espionage.

1960 - The Soviets launch the Sputnik 5 satellite with dogs Belka and Strelka, 40 mice, 2 rats, and a variety of plants.

1980 - Otto Frank, the father of Anne Frank, and the sole member of his family to survive the Holocaust dies at the age of 91.  Before the war, he was a businessman and started the company Opekta. It sold spices and pectin for use in the manufacture of jam.

1989 - Several hundred East Germans cross the frontier between Hungary and Austria during the Pan-European Picnic, part of the events which began the process of the Fall of the Berlin Wall.

1991 - Soviet President Mikhail Gorbachev is placed under house arrest while on holiday in the town of Foros, Crimea.

2008 - American saxophonist, and often music arranger for the Dave Matthews Band, LeRoi Moore, passes  away at the age of 48.

2010 - Operation Iraqi Freedom ends, with the last of the United States brigade combat teams, crossing the border into Kuwait.

Thursday, August 18, 2011

18th of August

It is the 230th day of the year, with 135 days remaining.

293 BC - The oldest known Roman temple to Venus is founded, starting the institution of Vinalia Rustica.

1587 AD - Virginia Dare, granddaughter of governor John White of the Colony of Roanoke, becomes the first English child born in the Americas.

1590 - John White, the governor of the Colony of Roanoke, returns from a supply trip to England and finds his settlement deserted.

1634 - Urbain Grandier, accused and convicted of sorcery, is burned alive in Loudon, France.

1774 - American explorer, who explored the territory of the Louisiana Purchase, Meriwether Lewis is born.

1864 - Union forces try to cut a vital Confederate supply-line into Petersburg, Virginia, by attacking the Wilmington and Weldon Railroad.  It will be known as the Battle of Globe Tavern.

1868 - French astronomer Pierre Jules Cesar Janssen discovers helium.

1903 - German engineer Karl Jatho allegedly flies his self-made, motored gliding airplane four months before the first flight of the Wright Brothers.  It is neither confirmed or denied.

1920 - The Nineteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution is ratified.  This guarantees women's suffrage, or the right to vote.

1921 - Lydia Lotviak, one of the world's only two female fighter aces, for the Soviet Air Force during World War II, claimed 12 solo victories.

1934 - Puerto Rican baseball player for the Pittsburgh Pirates, Roberto Clemente is born.

1936 - American actor, film director, and producer, Robert Redford is born.

1940 - American machinist, automotive industry executive, and founder of the Chrysler Corporation, Walter Chrysler, dies at the age of 65.

1941 - Adolf Hitler orders a temporary halt to Nazi Germany's systematic T4 euthanasia program of the mentally ill and the handicapped due to protests.

1965 - Operation Starlite begins with United States Marines destroying a Viet Cong stronghold on the Van Tuong peninsula in the first major American ground battle ofthe war.

1966 - The Battle of Long Tan occurs, when a patrol of 6th Battalion, Royal Australian Regiment encounter the Viet Cong.

1971 - Both Australia and New Zealand make a conscious decision to withdraw their fighting troops from the rice paddies and jungles of Vietnam.

2005 - Dennis Rader is sentenced to 175 years in prison for being charged with the BTK serial killings.  It is estimated that he killed ten people between 1974 and 1991 and received his moniker, BTK, which stands for Bind, Torture, Kill.  It is known in the law enforcement world as his "signature."

Wednesday, August 17, 2011

17th of August

Today is the 229th day of the year with 136 days remaining until the end of the year.

986 - A Byzantine army is destroyed in the pass of Trajan's Gate by the Bulgarians under the command of Comitopuli Samuel and Aron.  The Byzantine emperor Basil II, narrowly escapes capture.

1657 - Robert Blake, one of the most important military commanders of the Commonwealth of England and one of the most famous English admirals of the 17th century, passes away.

1786 - American frontiersman and soldier, Davy Crockett is born.

1807 - Robert Fulton's first American steamboat leaves New York City for Albany, New York on the Hudson River.  This is the inauguration of the first commercial steamboat service in the world.

1862 - Major General J.E.B. Stuart is assigned command of all the cavalry of the Confederate Army of Northern Virginia.

1863 - In Charleston Harbor, South Carolina, Union batteries, gunboats, and other vessels bombard the Confederate held Fort Sumter.

1864 - Confederate forces defeat Union troops near Gainesville, Florida during the American Civil War.

1907 - Pike Place Market, the longest continuously running public farmers market in the United States, opens in Seattle, Washington.

1914 - The son and fifth child of FDR, Franklin Delano Roosevelt Jr. is born.

1929 - Francis Gary Powers is born.  He was an American pilot whose Central Intelligence Agency U-2 spy plane was shot down while flying a reconnaissance mission over Soviet Union airspace.

1940 - Billy Fiske dies.  He was the 1932 Olympic champion bobsled driver, and one of the first American pilots killed in action during World War II.

1942 - U.S. Marines raid the Japanese-held Pacific island of Makin.  The atoll is referred to Butaritari today.

1943 - The U.S. Eighth Air Force suffers the loss of nearly 60 bombers on the Schweinfurt-Regensburg mission.

1943 - The U.S. Seventh Army under General George S. Patton arrives in Messina, Italy.  It is followed several hours later by the British 8th Army under Field Marshal Bernard Montgomery, thus completing the Allied conquest of Sicily.

1945 - The celebration and proclamation of Indonesia's independence from the Empire of Japan.

1962 - East German border guards kill 18-year-old Peter Fechter as he attempts to cross the Berlin Wall into West Berlin.  He becomes one of the first victims of the wall.

1966 - Rodney Mullen, a professional freestyle and street skateboarder, considered the inventor of the ollie, kickflip, heelflip, impossible, and a long list of others, is born.

1969 - Category 5 Hurricane Camille hits the Mississippi Delta, killing 248 people and causing $1.5 billion in damages.

1970 - Venera 7 is launched.  It will later become the first spacecraft to successfully transmit data from the surface of another planet (Venus).

1978 - Double Eagle II becomes the first balloon to cross the Atlantic Ocean.  It lands in Miserey, France, approximately 137 hours after leaving Presque Isle, Maine.

1982 - The first Compact Discs (CD's) are released to the public in Germany.

1998 - President Bill Clinton admits in taped testimony that he had an "improper physical relationship" with White House intern Monica Lewinsky.  On the same day, he admits before the nation, that he misled people about the relationship.

1999 - An extremely disastrous earthquake strikes Izmit, Turkey, killing more than 17,000 and injuring another 44,000.

2008 - American swimmer, Michael Phelps becomes the first person to win eight gold medals in one Olympic Games, with the win in the 4 x 100 m medley relay.

Rudolf Hess - In 1987, dies while imprisoned at Spandau Prison in West Berlin at the age of 93.  He was found in a summer house in a garden with electrical cord wrapped around his neck, and his death was ruled a suicide.  Hess was a prominent Nazi politician who was Adolf Hitler's deputy in the Nazi Party, and on the eve of war with the USSR, he flew solo to Scotland in an attempt to negotiate peace with the United Kingdom.  He was arrested, became a prisoner of war, was tried and sentenced to life imprisonment at the Nuremberg trials.