Monday, April 30, 2012

30th of April

It is the 120th day of the year, with only 245 days remaining until the new year.

1492 - Spain gives Christopher Columbus his commission of exploration.

1789 - On the balcony of Federal Hall on Wall Street in New York City, George Washington takes the oath of office to become the first elected President of the United States.

1803 - The United States purchases the Louisiana Territory from France for $15 million, more than doubling the size of the young nation.

1812 - The Territory of Orleans becomes the 18th U.S. state under the name Louisiana.

1900 - Hawaii becomes a territory of the United States, with Sanford B. Dole as governor.

1907 - Honolulu, Hawaii becomes an independent city.

1925 - Automaker Dodge Brothers, Inc. is sold to Dillon, Read & Company for $146 million plus $50 million for charity.

1927 - The Federal Industrial Institute for Women opens in Alderson, West Virginia, as the first women's federal prison ni the United States.

1927 - Douglas Fairbanks and Mary Pickford become the first celebrities to leave their footprints in concrete at Grauman's Chinese Theater in Hollywood.

1943 - As Operation Mincemeat, the submarine HMS Seraph surfaces in the Mediterranean Sea off the coast of Spain to deposit a dead man planted with false invasion plans and dressed as a British military intelligence officer.

1945 - Adolf Hitler and Eva Braun commit suicide after being married for one day.  Soviet soldiers raise the Victory Banner over the Reichstag building.

1973 - President Richard Nixon announces that top White House aids H.R. Haldeman, John Ehrlichmann and others have resigned.

1975 - Communist forces gain control of Saigon.  The Vietnam War formally ends with the unconditional surrender of South Vietnamese president Duong Van Minh.

1993 -  Tennis player Monica Seles is stabbed by Gunter Parche, an obsessed fan, during a quarterfinal match of the 1993 Citizen Cup in Hamburg, Germany.

2004 - U.S. media release graphic photos of American soldiers abusing and sexually humiliating Iraqi prisoners at Abu Ghraid prison.

Sunday, April 29, 2012

29th of April

Today is the 119th day of the year, with only 246 days remaining until the new year.

1429 - Joan of Arc, arrives to relieve the Siege of Orleans.

1861 - Maryland's House of Delegates votes not to secede from the Union.

1945 - Adolf Hitler marries his longtime partner Eva Braun in a Berlin bunker and designates Admiral Karl Donitz as his successor.

1945 - The Dachau concentration camp is liberated by United States troops.

1946 - The International Military Tribunal for the Far East convenes and indict former Prime Minister of Japan Hideki Tojo and 28 former Japanese leaders for war crimes.

1967 - After refusing induction into the United States Army the day before, citing religious reasons, Muhammad Ali is stripped of his boxing title.

1970 - United States and South Vietnamese forces invade Cambodia to hunt Viet Cong.

1975 - Operation Frequent Wind begins, when the U.S. evacuates U.S. citizens from Saigon prior to an expected North Vietnamese takeover.

1986 - A fire at the Central library of the City of Los Angeles Public Library, damages or destroys 400,000 books and other items.

1991 - A cyclone strikes the Chittagong district of southeastern Bangladesh, with winds of around 155 mph, killing at least 138,000 people and leaving as many as 10 million people homeless.

1992 - Riots in Los Angeles, California, following the acquittal of police officers charged with excessive force in the beating of Rodney King.  Over the next three days, 53 people are killed and hundreds of buildings are destroyed.

2004 - Oldsmobile builds its final car ending 107 years of production.

2011 - The wedding of Prince William, Duke of Cambridge, and Kate Middleton occurs as Westminster Abbey in London.

Saturday, April 28, 2012

28th of April

It is the 118th day of the year and there are 247 days remaining.

1503 - The Battle of Cerignolad is fought.  It is noted as the first battle in history won by small arms fire using gunpowder.

1788 - Maryland becomes the seventh state to ratify the Constitution of the United States.

1930 - The first night game in organized baseball history takes place in Independence, Kansas.

1932 - A vaccine for yellow fever is announced for use on humans.

1945 - Benito Mussolini and his mistress Clara Petacci, are executed by a firing squad consisting of members of the Italian resistance movement.

1952 - Dwight D. Eisenhower resigns as Supreme Allied Commander of NATO.

1969 - Charles de Gaulle resigns as President of France.

1970 - Richard m. Nixon formally authorizes American combat troops to fight communist sanctuaries in Cambodia.

1988 - Near Maui, Hawaii, flight attendant Clarabelle "C.B." Lansing, is blown out of Aloha Airlines Flight 243, a Boeing 737, and falls to her death when part of the plane's fuselage rips open in mid-flight.

1994 - Former CIA counter-intelligence officer and analyst Aldrich Ames, pleads guilty to giving U.S. secrets to the Soviet Union and later Russia.

2001 - Millionaire Dennis Tito, becomes the world's first space tourist.

Friday, April 27, 2012

27th of April

It is the 117th day of the year and only 248 days remaining.

1773 - The Parliament of Great Britain passes the Tea Act, designed to save the British East India Company, by granting it a monopoly on the North American tea trade.

1805 - U.S. Marines and Berbers attack the Tripolitan city of Derna during the First Barbary War.

1810 - Beethoven composes his famous piano piece, Fur Elise.

1865 - The steamboat Sultana, carrying nearly 2400 passengers, explodes and sinks in the Mississippi River, killing 1,700 men.  Most are Union survivors of the Andersonville and Cahaba Prisons.

1936 - The United Auto Workers gains authority from the American Federation of Labor.

1945 - Benito Mussolini is arrested by Italian partisans in Dongo, while attempting to escape disguised as a German soldier.

1978 - Former aide to President Nixon, John D. Ehrlichman is released from an Arizona prison after serving 18 months for Watergate-related crimes.

1981 - Xerox PARC introduces the computer mouse.

1987 - The Department of Justice bars the Austrian President Kurt Waldheim from entering the United States, saying he had aided in the deportation and execution of thousands of Jews and others as a German Army officer during World War II.

2005 - The superjumbo jet aircraft Airbus A380 makes its first flight from Toulouse, France.

2006 - Construction begins on the Freedom Tower for the new World Trade Center in New York City.

Thursday, April 26, 2012

26th of April

Today is the 116th day of the year with only 249 days remaining.

1805 - During the First Barbary War, U.S. Marines capture Derne, Tripoli under the command of First Lieutenant Presley O'Bannon.

1865 - Confederate General Joseph E. Johnston surrenders his army to General William T. Sherman at the Bennett Place near Durham, North Carolina.

1865 - Union cavalry troopers corner and shoot dead John Wilkes Booth, assassin of President Lincoln, in a barn in Virginia.

1925 - Paul von Hindenburg defeats Wilhelm Marx in the second round of the German presidential election to become the first directly elected head of state of the Weimar Republic.

1933 - The Gestapo, the official secret police force of Nazi Germany, is established.

1942 - The Benxihu Colliery accident in Manchukuo leaves 1,549 Chinese miners dead.

1945 - Battle of Bautzen, the last successful German tank-offensive of the war and last noteworthy victory of the Wehrmacht, occurs.

1954 - The Geneva Conference, an effort to restore peace in Indochina and Korea, begins.

1965 - A Rolling Stones concert in London, Ontario, is shut down by police after 15 minutes due to rioting.

1981 - Dr. Michael R. Harrison of the University of California, San Francisco Medical Center, performs the world's first human open fetal surgery.

1986 - A nuclear reactor accident occurs at the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant in the Soviet Union, creating the world's worst nuclear disaster.

Wednesday, April 25, 2012

25th of April

Today is the 115th day of the year, with only 250 days remaining.

1792 - Highwayman Nicolas J. Pelletier becomes the first person to be executed by guillotine.

1847 - The last survivors of the Donner Party are out of the wilderness.

1859 - British and French engineers break ground for the Suez Canal.

1861 - The Union Army arrives in Washington, D.C.

1862 - Forces under Admiral David Farragut demand the surrender of the Confederate city of New Orleans, Louisiana.

1901 - New York becomes the first U.S. state to require automobile license plates.

1939 - DC Comics publishes its second major superhero in Detective Comics #27, he is Batman, one of the most popular comic book superheroes of all time.

1945 - United States and Soviet troops meet in Torgau along the River Elbe, cutting the Wehrmacht of Nazi Germany in two, a milestone in the approaching end of World War II.

1953 - Francis Crick and James D. Watson publish Molecular structure of nucleic acid: a structure for deoxyribose nucleic acid, describing the double helix structure of DNA.

1959 - The St. Lawrence Seaway, linking the North American Great Lakes and the Atlantic Ocean, officially opens to shipping.

1960 - The U.S. Navy submarine USS Triton completes the first submerged circumnavigation of the globe.

1961 - Robert Noyce is granted a patent for an integrated circuit.

1972 - The North Vietnamese 320th Division, forces 5,000 South Vietnamese troops to retreat and traps about 2,500 others northwest of Kontum.

1988 - In Israel, John Demjanuk, is sentenced to death for war crimes committed in World War II.

2007 - Boris Yeltsin's funeral, the first to be sanctioned by the Russian Orthodox Church for a head of state since the funeral of Emperor Alexander III in 1894.

Tuesday, April 24, 2012

24th of April

It is the 114th day of the year, with only 251 days remaining until the end of the year.

1479 BC - Thutmose III ascends to the throne of Egypt, although power effectively shirts to Hatsheput.

1800 AD - The United States Library of Congress is established when President John Adams signs legislation to appropriate $5,000 to purchase "such books as may be necessary for the use of Congress."

1862 - A flotilla commanded by Union Admiral David Farragut passes two Confederate forts on the Mississippi River on it way to capture New Orleans, Louisiana.

1898 - The United States declares war on Spain.

1907 - Hersheypark, founded by Milton S. Hershey for the exclusive use of his employees, is opened.

1916 - Ernest hackleton and five men of the Imperial Trans-Antarctic Expedition launch a lifeboat from uninhabited Elephant Island in the Southern Ocean to organize a rescue for the ice-trapped ship Endurance.

1918 - It is the first tank-to-tank combat at Villers-Brtonneux, France, when three British Mark IVs met three German A7Vs.

1953 - Winston Churchill is knighted by Queen Elizabeth II.

1967 - Cosmonaut Vladimir Komarov dies in Soyuz ! when its parachute fails to open.  He is the first human to die during a space mission.

1990 - The Hubble Space Telescope is launched from the Space Shuttle Discovery in mission STS-31.

2005 - Snuppy, the world's first cloned dog, is born in South Korea.

Monday, April 23, 2012

23rd of April

Today is the 113th day of the year, with only 252 days remaining until the new year.

1014 - Irish king, Brian Boru defeats Viking invaders, but is killed at the Battle of Clontarf.

1635 - The first public school in the U.S., Boston Latin School, is founded in Massachusetts.

1942 - Baedeker Blitz occurs, when German bombers hit Exeter, Bath, and York in retaliation for the British raid on Lubeck.

1985 - Coca-Cola changes its formula and releases New Coke.  The response is overwhelmingly negative, and the original formula is back on the market in less than 3 months.

Sunday, April 22, 2012

22nd of April

It is the 112th day of the year, with only 253 days remaining.

1836 - A day after the Battle of San Jacinto, forces under Texas General Sam Houston, capture Mexican General Antonio Lopez de Santa Anna.

1863 - Troops under Union Army Colonel Benjamin Grierson, attack central Mississippi.

1898 - The United States Navy begins a blockade of Cuban ports and the USS Nashville captures a Spanish merchant ship.

1915 - The use of poison gas in World War I escalates, when chlorine gas is released a a chemical weapon in the Second Battle of Ypres.

1945 - prisoners at the Jasenovac concentration camp revolt.  520 people are killed and only 80 escape.

1945 - After learning that Soviet forces have taken Eberswalde without a fight, Adolf Hitler admits defeat in his underground bunker, and states that there is no way out.

1964 - The New York World's Fair opens for its first season.

1970 - The first Earth Day is celebrated.

1972 - Increased American combing in Vietnam prompts anti-war protests in Los Angeles, New York City, and San Francisco.

1998 - Disney's Animal Kingdom opens at Walt Disney World near Orlando, Florida.

2008 - The United States Air Force retire the remainigng F-117 Nighthawk aircraft in service.

Saturday, April 21, 2012

21st of April

Today is the 111th day of the year, with only 254 days remaining.

753 BC - Romulus and Remus found Rome (the traditional date).

1519 AD - Hernan Cortez lands in Veracruz, Veracruz.

1952 - Secretary's Day is first celebrated.  It is now known as Administrative Professionals' Day.

1962 - The Seattle World's Fair opens.  It is the first Exposition in the United States since the Second World War.

1975 - President of South Vietnam Nguyen Van Thieu flees Saigon, as Xuan Loc, the last South Vietnamese outpost blocking a direct North Vietnamese assault on Saigon, falls.

1982 - Rollie Fingers of the Milwaukee Brwers becomes the first pitcher to record 300 saves.

1989 - In Beijing, around 100,000 students gather in Tiananmen Square to commemorate Chinese reform leader Hu Yaobang.

Friday, April 20, 2012

20th of April

It is the 110th day of the year, with only 255 days remaining until the new year.

1775 - The Siege of Boston begin, following the battles of Lexington and Concord.

1836 - U.S. Congress passes an act creating the Wisconsin Territory.

1861 - Robert E. Lee resigns his commission in the United States Army, in order to command the forces of the state of Virginia.

1862 - Louis Pasteur and Claude Bernard complete the first pasteurization tests.

1902 - Pierre and Marie Curie refine radium chloride.

1912 - Opening Day for baseball's Tiger Stadium in Detroit, Michigan and Fenway Park in Boston, Massachusetts.

1916 - The Chicago Cubs play their first game at Weeghman Park, currently Wrigley Field, defeating the Cincinnati Reds by a score of 7 to 6 in 11 innings.

1918 - Manfred von Richtofen, The Red Baron, shoots down his 79th and 80th victims, his final victories before his death the following day.

1926 - Western Electric and Warner Bros. announce Vitaphone, a process to add sound to film.

1939 - Adolf Hitler's 50th birthday, is celebrated as a national holiday throughout Germany.

1945 - Adolf Hitler makes his last trip to the surface to award Iron Crosses to boy soldiers of the Hitler Youth.

1986 - Pianist Vladimir Horowitz performs in his native Russia for the first time in 61 years.

1999 - In a horrific episode, Eric Harris and Dylan Klebold kill 13 people and injure 24 others before committing suicide at Columbine High School in Jefferson County, Colorado.

2008 - Danica Patrick wins the Indy Japan 300 becoming the first female driver in history to win an Indy car race.

2010 - The Deepwater Horizon oil well explodes in the Gulf of Mexico, killing eleven workers and beginning an oil spill that will last five months.

Thursday, April 19, 2012

19th of April

Today is the 109th day of the year, with only 256 days remaining.

1587 - Francis Drake's expedition sinks the Spanish fleet in Cadiz harbor.

1770 - Marie Antoinette marries Louis XVI in a proxy wedding.

1775 - The American War of Independence begins with a victory at the Battle of Lexington and Concord.

1892 - Charles Duryea claims to have driven the first automobile in the United States in Springfield, Massachusetts.

1919 - Leslie Irvin makes the first successful voluntary free-fall parachute jump using a new kind of self-contained parachute in the United States.

1943 - In Poland, German troops enter the Warsaw ghetto to round up the remaining Jews, beginning the Warsaw Ghetto Uprising.

1951 - General Douglas MacArthur retires from the military.

1955 - The German automaker of Valkswagen, after six years of selling cars in the United States, founds Volkswagen of America in Englewood Cliff, New Jersey to standardize its dealer and service network.

1956 - Actress Grace Kelly marries Prince Rainier of Monaco.

1961 - The Bay of Pigs invasion ends in success for the defenders.

1971 - Vietnam Veterans Against the War, begin a five-day demonstration in Washington, D.C.

1971 - Charles Manson is sentenced to death for conspiracy to commit the Tate/LaBianca murders.

1987 - The Simpsons premieres as a short cartoon on the Tracey Ullman Show.

1993 - The 51-day siege of the Branch Davidian building in Waco, Texas, comes to an end when a fire breaks out.  81 people die.

1995 - The Alfred P. Murrah Federal Building in Oklahoma City, Oklahoma is bombed, killing 168.  That same day convicted murderer Richard Wayne Snell, who had ties to one of the bombers, Timothy McVeigh, is executed in Arkansas.

1999 - The German Bundestag returns to Berlin, the first German parliamentary body to meet there, since the Reichstag was dissolved in 1945.

Wednesday, April 18, 2012

18th of April

Today is the 108th day of the year, with only 257 days remaining.

1831 - The University of Alabama is founded in Tuscaloosa.

1848 - An American victory at the Battle of Cerro Gordo opens the way for the invasion of Mexico.

1881 - Billy the Kid escapes from Lincoln County jail in Mesilla, New Mexico.

1912 - The Cunard liner RMS Carpathia brings 705 survivors from the RMS Titanic to New York City.

1923 - Yankee Stadium, "The House that Ruth Built," opens.

1924 - Simon & Schuster publishes the first crossword puzzle book.

1942 - The Doolittle Raid on Japan occurs.  Tokyo, Yokohama, Kobe, and Nagoya are bombed.

1943 - Operation Vengenace is launched, and Admiral Isoruku Yamamoto is killed when his aircraft is shot down by U.S. fighters over Bouganville Island.

1958 - A United States federal court rules that poet Ezra Pound be released from an insane asylum.

1981 - The longest professional  begins in Pawtucket, Rhode Island.  The game is suspended at 4:00 AM the next morning and finally completed on June 23.

Tuesday, April 17, 2012

17th of April

Today is the 107th day of the year, with only 258 days remaining until the new year.

1397 - Geoffrey Chaucer tells the Canterbury Tales for the first time, at the court of Richard II.  Chaucer scholars have also identified this date the start if the book's pilgrimage to Canterbury.

1492 - Spain and Christopher Columbus sign the Capitulations of Santa Fe for his voyage to Asia to acquire spices.

1521 - Martin Luther speaks to assembly at the Diet of Worms, refusing to recant his teachings.

1864 - The Battle of Plymouth begins, when Confederate forces attack in North Carolina.

1907 - The Ellis Island immigration center processes 11,747 people, more than on any other day.

1961 - A group of CIA financed and trained Cuban refugees lands at the Bay of Pigs in Cuba with the aim of ousting Fidel Castro.

1969 - Sirhan Sirhan is convicted of assassinating Robert F. Kennedy.

1970 - The ill-fated Apollo 13 spacecraft returns to Earth safely.

Monday, April 16, 2012

16th of April

Today is the 106th day of the year, with only 259 days remaining until the new year.

1178 BC - The calculated date of the Greek King Odysseus' return home from the Trojan War.

1818 AD - The United States Senate, ratifies the Rush-Bagot Treaty, establishing the border with Canada.

1863 - Ships led by Union Admiral David Dixon Porter move through heavy Confederate artillery fire on approach to Vicksburg, Mississippi.

1881 - In Dodge City, Kansas, Bat Masterson fights his last gun battle.

1917 - Vladimir Lenin returns to Petrograd from exile in Switzerland.

1941 - Bob Feller of the Cleveland Indians throws the only Opening Day no-hitter in the history of Major League Baseball, beating the Chicago White Sox, 1 to 0.

1945 - The Red Army begins its final assault on German forces around Berlin, with nearly one million troops fighting in the Battle of the Seelow Heights.

1945 - The U.S. Army liberates Nazi Sonderlager, high security prisoner-of-war camp Oflag IV-c, better known as Colditz.

1945 - More than 7,000 people died when the Nazi refugee ship Goya, is sunk by a Soviet submarine torpedo.

1947 - Bernard Baruch coins the terms "Cold War" to describe the relationship between the United States and the Soviet Union.

1962 - Walter Cronkite takes over as the lead news anchor of the CBS Evening News, during which time he would become "the most trusted man in America.

1963 - Dr. Martin Luther King Jr., pens his Letter from Birmingham Jail while incarcerated for protesting against segregation.

1990 - The "Doctor of Death", Jack Kevorkian, participates in his first assisted suicide.

1992 - The Katina P. runs aground off Maputo, Mozambique and 60,000 tons of crude oil spill into the ocean.

2007 - Known as the Virginia Tech massacre, the deadliest spree killing in modern American history, Seung-Hui Cho, kills 32 and injures 23 before committing suicide.

Sunday, April 15, 2012

15th of April

Today is the 105th day of the year, with only 260 days remaining.

1817 - Thomas Hopkins Gallaudet and Laurent Clerc founded the American School for the Deaf, the first American school for deaf students, in Hartford, Connecticut.

1892 - The General Electric Company is formed.

1912 - The RMS Titanic, a British passenger liner, sinks in the North Atlantic at 2:20 AM, two and a half hours after hitting an iceberg.

1920 - Two security guards are murdered during a robbery, that would convict Anarchists Sacco and Vanzetti  and execute them of the crime, amid much controversy.

1923 - Insulin becomes generally available for use by people with diabetes.

1924 - Rand McNally publishes its first road atlas.

1941 - Known as the Belfast Blitz, two-hundred Luftwaffe bombers attack Belfast, Northern Ireland.  They kill an estimated 1,000 people.

1945 - The Bergen-Belsen concentration camp is liberated by Allied forces.

1947 - Jackie Robinson debuts for the Brooklyn Dodgers, breaking baseball's color barrier.

1952 - It is the maiden flight of the American B-52 Stratofortress.

1955 - McDonald's restaurant dates its founding to the opening of a franchised restaurant by Ray Kroc, in Des Plaines, Illinois.

1958 - Walter O'Malley's Los Angeles Dodgers, host the first Major League Baseball game played on the West Coast of the United States.

1983 - Tokyo Disney Resort and Disneyland Park, opens in Tokyo Bay, Japan.

1989 - Upon Hu Yaobang's death, the Tiananmen Square protests begin in the People's Republic of China.

Saturday, April 14, 2012

14th of April

Today is the 104th day of the year, with only 261 days remaining until the new year.

1775 - The first abolition society in North America is established.  The Society for the Relief of Free Negroes Unlawfully Held in Bondage is organized in Philadelphia, by Benjamin Franklin and Benjamin Rush.

1816 - Bussa, a slave in British-ruled Barbados, leads a slave rebellion and is killed.  He is remembered as the first national hero of the country.

1828 - Noah Webster copyrights the first edition of dictionary.

1846 - The Donner Party of pioneers departs Springfield, Illinois, for California, on what will become a year-long journey of hardship, cannibalism, and survival.

1860 - The first Pony Express Riders reach Sacramento, California.

1865 - Secretary of State William H. Seward and his family are attacked in his home by Lewis Powell.

1894 - the first ever commercial motion picture house opens in New York City, using ten Kinetiscopes, a device for peep-show viewing of films.

1912 - The British passenger liner RMS Titanic hits an iceberg in the North Atlantic at 11:40 PM.  The ship sinks the following morning with a loss of 1,517 lives.

1927 - The first Volvo car premieres in Gothenburg, Sweden.

1939 - The Grapes of Wrath, by American author John Steinbeck, is first published by the Viking press.

1956 - In Chicago, Illinois, videotape is first deomnstrated.

1986 - 2.2 pound or 1 kilogram hailstones fall on the Gopalganj district of Bangladesh, killing 92.  These are the heaviest hailstones ever recorded.

Friday, April 13, 2012

13th of April

It is the 103rd day of the year with only 262 days remaining.

1207 - Constantinople falls to the Crusaders of the Fourth Crusade, temporarily ending the Byzantine Empire.

1598 - Henry IV of France issues the Edict of Nantes, allowing freedom of religion to the Huguenots.

1796 - The first elephant ever seen in the United States arrives from India.

1861 - Fort Sumter surrenders to Confederate forces, after siege.

1902 - James C. Penney opens his first store in Kenmerer, Wyoming.

191 - Eugene V. Debs enters prison at Atlanta Federal Penitentiary in Georgia, for speaking out against the draft during the First World War.

1943 - The Jefferson Memorial is dedicated on the 200th anniversary of Thomas Jefferson's birth.

1953 - CIA director Allen Dulles launches the mind-control program MKULTRA.

1964 - At the Academy Awards, Sidney Poitier becomes the first African-American male to win the Best Actor award for the 1963 film Lilies of the Field.

1970 - An oxygen tank aboard Apollo 13 explodes, putting the crew in great danger and causing major dmage to the spacecraft while en route to the moon.

1974 - Western Union in cooperation with NASA and Hughes Aircraft, launches the first commercial geosynchronous communications satellite, Westar 1.

1997 - Tiger Woods becomes the youngest golfer to win the Masters Tournament.

Thursday, April 12, 2012

12th of April

It is the 102nd day of the year, with only 263 days remaining until the end of the year.

1204 - The Crusaders of the Fourth Crusade breach the walls of Constantinople and enter the city, which they completely occupy the following day.

1606 - The Union Jack, the flag, is adopted as that of Great Britain.

1633 - The formal inquest of Galileo Galilei by the Inquisition begins.

1861 - The American Civil War begins with Confederate forces firing on Fort Sumter, in the harbor of Charleston, South Carolina.

1864 - The Andrews Raid, known as the Great Locomotive Chase occurred, starting from Big Shanty, Georgia.

1864 - Confederate forces kill most of the African-American soldiers that surrender at Fort Pillow, Tennessee.

1935 - It is the first flight of the Bristol Blenheim, British aircraft.

1937 - Sir Frank Whittle ground-tests the first jet engine designed to power an aircraft, in Rugby, England.

1945 - President Franklin Roosevelt dies while in office, the vice-president Harry Truman is sworn in.

1954 - Baill Haley & His Comets record, "Rock Around the Clock" in New York City.

1955 - The polio vaccine, developed by Dr. Jonas Salk, is declared safe and effective.

1961 - The Russian cosmonaut Yrui Gagarin becomes the first human to travel into outer space and perform the first manned orbital flight, in Vostok 3KA-2.

1981 - The first launch of a space shuttle takes place on STS-1 mission.

1990 - Jim Gary's Twentieth Century Dinosaurs exhibition opens at the Smithsonian Museum of Natural History in Washington, D.C.

1999 - President Bill Clinton is cited for contempt of court for giving "intentionally false statements" in a sexual harassment civil lawsuit.

Wednesday, April 11, 2012

11th of April

Today is the 101st day of the year, with only 264 days remaining until the new year.

1775 - The last execution for witchcraft in Germany takes place.

1945 - American football liberate the Buchenwald concentration camp.

1951 - The Stone of Scone, the stone upon which Scottish monarchs were traditionally crowned, is found on the site of the altar of Arbroath Abbey.  It had been taken by Scottish nationalist students from its place in Westminster Abbey.

1961 - The trial of Adolph Eichmann begins in Jerusalem.

1965 - A total of 51 tornadoes hit in six Midwestern states, killing 256 people.

1968 - President Lyndon Johnson signs a Civil Rights Act, prohibiting discrimination in the sale, rental, and financing of housing.

1970 - Apollo 13 is launched.

1976 - The Apple I is created.

2000 - AT&T Park in San Francisco, Minute Maid Park in Houston, and Comerica Park in Detroit open.

Tuesday, April 10, 2012

10th of April

Today is exactly the 100th day of the year, with only 265 days remaining until the new year.

837 - Halley's Comet and Earth experienced their closest approach to one another when their separating distance equalled  .0342 AU (3.2 million miles).

1606 - The Charter of the Virginia Company of London is established by royal charter by James I of England with the purpose of establishing colonial settlements in North America.

1815 - The Mount Tambora volcano begins a three-month-long eruption, lasting until July 15.  The eruption kills 71,000 people and affects Earth's climate for the next two years.

1858 - The original Big Ben, a 14.5 tonne bell for the Palace of Westminster is cast in Stockton-on-Tees by Warner's of Cripplegate.  This however crack during testing and is recast into the 13.76 tonne bell by Whitechapel Bell Foundry and is still in use today.

1865 - A day after his surrender to Union forces, Confederate General Robert E. Lee addresses his troops for the last time.

1866 - The American Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals, the ASPCA, is founded in New York City by Henry Bergh.

1912 - The RMS Titantic leaves port in Southampton, England for her first and only voyage.

1916 - The Professional Golfer's Association of America, is created in New York City.

1925 - The Great Gatsby, by F. Scott Fitsgerald, is first published in New York City, by Charles Scribner's Sons/

1944 - Rudolf Vrba and Alfred Wetzler escape from the Birkenau death camp.

1953 - Warner Brothers premieres the first 3-D film from a major American studio, entitled House of Wax.

1972 - Seventy-four nations signs the Biological Weapons Convention, the first multilateral disarmament treaty banning the production of biological weapons.

Monday, April 9, 2012

9th of April

It is the 99th day of the year, with only 266 days remaining.

1585 - The expedition organized by Sir Walter Raleigh, departs England for Roanoke Island to establish a colony.

1682 - Robert Cavelier de La Salle discovers the mouth of the Mississippi River, claims it for France and names it Louisiana.

1860 - On his phonautograph machine, Edouard-Leon Scott de Martinville makes the oldest known recording of an audible human voice.

1865 - Robert E. Lee surrenders the Army of Northern Virginia, 26,765 troops to Ulysses S. Grant at Appomattox Court House, effectively ending the American Civil War.

1867 - Passing by a single vote, the United States Senate ratifies a treaty with Russia for the purchase of Alaska.

1916 - At the Battle of Verdun, German forces launch their third offensive of the battle.

1937 - The kamikaze arrives at Croydon Airport in London, it is the first Japanese-built aircraft to fly to Europe.

1942 - United States forces surrender on the Bataan Peninsula.  The Japanese Navy launches an air raid on Trincomalee in Ceylon, Royal Navy aircraft carrier HMS Hermes and Royal Australian Navy Destroyer HMAS Vampire, are sunk off the island's east coast.

1947 - The Journey of Reconciliation, the first interracial Freedom Ride, begins through the upper South in violation of Jim Crow laws.  The riders wanted enforcement of the 1946 Irene Morgan decision that banned racial segregation in interstate travel.

1969 - NASA announces the selection of the United States' first seven astronauts.

1965 - The Astrodome opens in Houston, Texas.  The first indoor baseball game is also played.

1967 - The first Boeing 737 makes its maiden flight.

1992 - A U.S. Federal Court finds former Panamanian dictator Manuel noriega guilty of drug and racketeering charges.  e is sentenced to 30 years in prison.

2003 - Baghdad, Iraq falls to American forces, the Saddam Hussein statue topples as Iraqis turn on symbols of their former leader, pulling down the statue and tearing it to pieces. 

Sunday, April 8, 2012

8th of April

Today is the 98th day of the year, with only 268 days remaining until the end of the year.

1832 - Around 300 United States 6th infantry troops leave St. Louis, Missouri to fight the Sauk Native Americans.

1864 - Union forces are thwarted by the Confederate army at the Mansfield, Louisiana.

1893 - The first recorded college basketball game occurs in Beaver Falls, Pennsylvania.

1904 - Longacre Square in Midtown Manhattan is renamed Times Square after The New York Times.

1906 - Auguste Deter, the first person to be diagnosed with Alzheimer's disease, passes away.

1911 - Dutch physicist Heikie Kamaerlingh Onnes discovers superconductivity.

1913 - The Seventeenth Amendment to the Constitution, requiring direct election of Senators, becomes law.

1918 - Actors Douglas Fairbanks and Charlie Chaplin sell war bonds on the streets of New York City's financial district.

1935 - The Works Progress Administration is formed, when the Emergency Relief Appropriation becomes law.

1943 - President Franklin Roosevelt, in an attempt to check inflation, freezes wages and prices, prohibits workers from changing jobs unless the war effort would be aided thereby, and bar rate increases by common carriers and public utilities.

1945 - After an air raid accidentally destroys a train carrying about 4,000 Nazi concentration camp internees in Prussian Hanover, the survivors are massacred by the Germans.

1946 - The last meeting of the League of Nations is held.

1959 - A team of computer manufacturers, users, and university people led by Grace Hopper meets to discuss the creation of a new programming language called COBOL.

1974 - At Atlanta-Fulton County Stadium, Hank Aaron hit his 715th career home run, to surpass Babe Ruth's 39-year-old record.

1975 - Frank Robinson manages the Cleveland Indians in his first game as major league baseball's first African-American manager.

2005 - Over four million people attend the funeral of Pope John Paul II.

Saturday, April 7, 2012

7th of April

It is the 97th day of the year, with only 268 days remaining until the end of the year.

529 - First draft of the Corpus Juris Civilis, a fundamental work in jurisprudence, is issued by Eastern Roman Emperor Justinian I.

1788 - Settlers arrives at the confluence of the Ohio and Muskingum rivers, establishing Marietta, Ohio, as the first permanent American settlement in the Northwest Territory.

1805 - The Corps of Discovery breaks camp among the Mandan tribe and resumes its journey West along the Missouri River.

1827 - John Walker, an English chemist, sells the first friction match that he had invented the previous year.

1906 - Mount Vesuvius erupts and devastates Naples, Italy.

1922 - United States Secretary of the Interior leases Teapot Dome petroleum reserves in Wyoming.

1933 - Prohibition is repealed for beer of no more than 3.2% alcohol by weight, eight months before the ratification of the Twenty-First Amendment.

1940 - Booker T. Washington becomes the first African-American to be depicted on a United States postage stamp.

1943 - In Terebovlia, Ukraine, Germans order 1,100 Jews to undress to their underwear and march through the city to the nearby village of Plebanivka where they are shot dead and buried in ditches.

1945 - The Japanese battleship, Yamato, the largest battleship ever constructed, is sunk by American planes 200 miles north of Okinawa while en-route tp a suicide mission in Operation Ten-Go.

1946 - Syria declares its independence from France.

1948 - The World Health Organization is established by the United Nations.

1954 - President Dwight D. Eisenhower gives his "domino theory" speech during a news conference.

1969 - The internet's symbolic birth date because of the publication of RFC 1.

1971 - President Richard Nixon announces his decision to increase the rate of American troop withdrawals from Vietnam.

1990 - John Poindexter is found guilty of five charges for his part in the Iran Contra Affair.  However, the conviction is later reversed upon appeal.

2003 - United States troops captured Baghdad, Iraq.

Friday, April 6, 2012

6th of April

Today is the 96th day of the year, with only 269 days remaining until the new year.

46 BC - Julius Caesar defeats Caecilius Metellus Scipio and Marcus Prcious Cato, in the Battle of Thapsus.

1652 AD - At the Cape of Good Hope, Dutch sailor Jan van Riebeeck establishes a resupply camp that eventually becomes Cape Town.

1808 - John Jacob Astor incorporates the American Fur Company, that would eventually make him America's first millionaire.

1814 - It is the nominal beginning of the Bourbon Restoration, and the anniversary date that Napoleon abdicates and is exiled to Elba.

1862 - The Battle of Shiloh begins, forces under Union General U.S. Grant meet Confederate troops led by General Albert Sidney Johnston.

1865 - The Battle of Sayler's Creek occurs, when Confederate General Robert E. Lee's Army of Northern Virginia fights its last major battle while in retreat from Richmond.

1866 - The Grand Army of the Republic, an American patriotic organization composed of Union veterans of the American Civil War is founded.  It lasts until 1956.

1869 - Celluloid is patented.

1896 - In Athens, the opening of the first modern Olympic Games is celebrated, 1500 years after the original games are banned by Roman Emperor Theodosius I.

1909 - Robert Peary and Matthew Henson reach the North Pole.

1917 - The United States declares war on Germany.

1941 - Nazi Germany launches Operation 25 and Operation Marita, the invasion of Yugoslavia and Greece, respectively.

1947 - The first Tony Awards are presented for theatrical achievement.

1972 - American forces begin sustained air strikes and naval bombardments in what is known as the Easter Offensive, during the Vietnam War.

1973 - The American League of Major League Baseball begins using the designated hitter.

1998 - Travelers Group announces an agreement to undertake the $76 billion merger between Travelers and Citicorp, and the merger is completed 6 months and 2 days later, forming Citibank.

Thursday, April 5, 2012

5th of April

Today is the 95th day of the year, with only 270 days remaining until the end of the year.

1614 - In Virginia, Native American Pocahantas marries English colonist John Rolfe.

1621 - The Mayflower sets sail from Plymouth, Massachusetts on a return trip to Great Britain.

1722 - The Dutch explorer Jacob Roggeveen discovers Easter Island.

1792 - President George Washington exercises his authority to veto a bill, the first time this power is used in the United States.

1900 - Archaeologists in Knossos, Crete, discover a large cache of clay tablets with hieroglyphic writing in a script they call Linear B.

1923 - Firestone Tire and Rubber Company begins production of balloon-tires.

1933 - President Franklin Roosevelt signs executive order 6102, "forbidding the Hoarding of Gold Coin, Gold Bullion, and Gold Certificates" by U.S. citizens.

1943 - American bmober aircraft accidentally cause more than 900 civilian deaths, including 209 children, and 1300 wounded among the civilian population of Belgian town of Mortsel.

1951 - Ethel and Julius Rosenberg are sentenced to death for performing espionage for the Soviet Union.

1955 - Winston Churchill resigns as Prime Minister of the United Kingdom amid indications of failing health.

1956 - Fidel Castro declares himself at war with the President of Cuba.

1976 - In the People's Republic of China, the Movement on this date leads to the famous Tiananmen incident.

Wednesday, April 4, 2012

4th of April

Today is the 94th day of the year, with only 271 days remaining until the new year.

1581 - Francis Drake is knighted for completing a circumnavigation of the world.

1812 - President James Madison enacted a ninety-day embargo on trade with the United Kingdom.

1818 - The United States Congress adopts the flag of the United States with 13 red and white stripes and one star for each state (then 20).

1841 - William Henry Harrison dies of pneumonia becoming the first President of the United States to die in office and the one with the shortest term served.

1850 - Los Angeles, California is incorporated as a city.

1859 - Bryant's Minstrels debut "Dixie" in New York City, in the finale of a blackface minstrela show.

1865 - A day after Union forces capture Richmond, Virginia, Abraham Lincoln visits the capital and supposedly sits in Jefferson Davis' chair.

1873 - The Kennel Club, is founded.  It is the oldest and first official registry of purebred dogs in the world.

1905 - In India, an earthquake hits the Kangra valley, killing 20,000 and destroys most of the buildings in Mcleodganj, Dharamshala, and Kangra.

1949 - Twelve nations sign the North Atlantic Treaty, creating NATO.

1964 - The Beatles occupy the top five positions on the Billboard Hot 100 pop chart.

1968 - Martin Luther King Jr., is assassinated by James Earl Ray at a motel in Memphis, Tennessee.

1969 - Dr. Denton Cooley implants the first temporary artificial heart.

1973 - The World Trade Center in New York is officially dedicated.

1975 - Microsoft is founded as a partnership between Bill Gates and Paul Allen in Alburquerque, New Mexico.

1975 - A United States Air Force C-5A Galaxy crashes near Saigon, South Vietnam shortly after takeoff, transporting orphans.  A total of 172 die in Operation Baby Lift.

1991 - Senator John Heinz of Pennsylvania and six others are killed when a helicopter collides with their plane over an elementary school in Merion, Pennsylvania.

1994 - Marc Andreesen and Jim Clark found Netscape Communications Corporation.

Tuesday, April 3, 2012

3rd of April

Today is the 93rd day of the year, with only 272 days remaining.

1860 - The first successful United States Pony Express run from Saint Joseph, Missouri to Sacramento, California begins.

1865 - Union forces capture Richmond, Virginia, the capital of the Confederate States of America.

1882 - American outlaw Jesse James is killed by Robert Ford.

1885 - Gottlieb Daimler is granted a German patent for his engine design.

1888 - The first of 11 unsolved brutal murders of women committed in or near the impoverished Whitechapel district in the East End of London occurs.

1895 - Trial of the libel case instigated by Oscar Wilde begins, eventually resulting in his imprisonment of charge of homosexuality.

1922 - Joseph Stalin becomes the first General Secretary of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union.

1933 - A British expedition, led by Marquis of Clydesdale, and funded by Lucy, Lady Houston, flies over Mount Everest.

1936 - Bruno Richard Hauptmann is executed for the kidnapping and death of Charles Augustus Lindbergh, the son of the famous aviator.

1946 - Japanese Lt. General Masaharu Homma is executed in the Phillipines for leading the Bataan Death March.

1948 - President Harry Truman signs the Marshall Plan, authorizing $5 billion in aid for 16 countries.

1955 - The American Civil Liberties Union, announces it will defend Allen Ginsberg's book Howl against obscenity charges.

1968 - Martin Luther King Jr. delivers his "I've Been to the Mountaintop" speech.

1969 - United States Secretary of Defense Melvin Laird, announces that the United States will start the Vietnamization of the war effort.

1973 - Martin Cooper of Motorola makes the first handheld mobile phone call to Joel S. Engel of Bell Labs, though it took ten years for the DynaTAC 8000X to become the first such phone to be commercially released.

1981 - The Osborne 1, the first successful portable computer, is unveiled at the West Coast Computer Faire in San Francisco.

1996 - Suspected "Unabomber" Theodore Kaczynski is arrested at his cabin in Montana.

2008 - Texas law enforcement cordons off the FLDS' YFZ Ranch.  Eventually 533 women and children will be removed and taken into state custody.

Monday, April 2, 2012

2nd of April

Today is the 92nd day of the year, with only 273 days remaining until the new year.

1755 - Commodore William James captures the pirate fortress of Suvarnadurg on the west coast of India.

1792 - The Coinage Act is passed, establishing the United States Mint.

1800 - Ludwig van Beethoven leads the premiere of his First Symphony in Vienna, Austria.

1863 - Known as the Richmond Bread Riot, food shortages incite hundreds of angry women to demand the Confederate government release emergency supplies.

1865 - The Siege of Petersburg is broken, when Union troops capture the trenches around Petersburg, Virginia, forcing Confederate General Robert E. Lee to retreat.

1865 - Confederate President Jefferson Davis and most of his Cabinet flee the Confederate capital of Richmond.

1885 - Cree warriors attack the village of Frog Lake, North-West Territories, Canada, killing nine people.

1902 - Electric Theatre, the first full-time movie theater in the United States, opens in Los Angeles, California.

1917 - President Woodrow Wilson asks the U.S. Congress for a declaration of war on Germany.

1972 - Actor Charlie Chaplin returns to the United States for the first time since being labeled a communist during the Red Scare in the 1950s.

1980 - President Jimmy Carter signs the Crude Oil Windfall Profits Tax Act in an effort to help the U.S. economy rebound.

1992 - In New York, Mafia boss John Gotti is convicted of murder and racketeering and is later sentenced to life in prison.

Sunday, April 1, 2012

1st of April

Today is the 91st day of the year, with only 274 days remaining until the end of the year.

It is the beginning of the fourth month of the year, and most notable in many countries for being April Fools' Day.

325 - Crown Prince Jin Chengdi, age 4, succeeds his father Jin Mingdi as emperor of the Eastern Jin Dynasty.

1789 - In New York City, The United States House Representatives holds its first quorum and elects Frederick Muhlenberg of Pennsylvania as its first House Speaker.

1826 - Samuel Morey patents the internal combustion engine.

1865 - Confederate General Robert E. Lee begins his final offensive at the Battle of Five Forks.

1873 - The British steamer RMS Atlantic sinks off Nova Scotia, killing 547 people.

1891 - The Wrigley Company is founded in Chicago, Illinois.

1893 - The rank of Chief Petty Officer in the United States Navy is established.

1924 - Adolf Hitler is sentenced to five years in prison for his participation in the Beer Hall Putsch.  However, he spends only nine months in jail, during which he write his manifesto Mein Kampf.

1933 - The recently elected Nazis under Julius Streicher organize a one-day boycott of all Jewish-owned businesses in Germany, ushering in a series of anti-Semitic acts.

1967 - The United States Department of Transportation begins operation.

1970 - President Richard Nixon signs the Public Health Cigarette Smoking Act into law, requiring the Surgeon General's warnings on tobacco products and banning cigarette advertisements on television and radio, starting the beginning of the following year.

1976 - Apple Inc. is formed by Steve Jobs and Steve Wozniak.

2001 - Former President of Federal Republic of Yugoslavia, Slobodan Milosevic, surrenders to police special forces to be tried on war crimes charges.

2009 - Croatia and Albania join NATO.