It is the 246th day of the year and there are 119 days remaining until the new year.
301 - San Marino, one of the smallest nations in the world and the world's oldest republic still in existence, is founded by the Saint Marinus.
1189 - Richard I of England, more commonly referred to as Richard the Lionheart, is crowned at Westminster.
1777 - During the Battle of Cooch's Bridge, the Flag of the United States is flown in conflict for the first time.
1783 - The American Revolutionary War ends with the signing of the Treaty of Paris by the United States and the Kingdom of Great Britain.
1838 - Dressed in a sailor's uniform and carrying identification papers provided by a Free Black seaman, future abolitionist Frederick Douglass, boards a train to Maryland on his way to freedom.
1855 - In Nebraska, 700 soldiers under United States General William S. Harney avenge the Grattan Massacre by attacking a Sioux village and killing 100 men, women, and children.
1861 - Confederate General Leonidas Polk invades neutral Kentucky, prompting the state legislature to ask for Union assistance.
1875 - Ferdinand Porsche, Austrian automotive engineer, creator of the first hybrid vehicle, the Volkswagen Beetle, and many Porsche automobiles, is born.
1933 - Yevgeniy Abalakov is the first man to reach the highest point in the Soviet Union, now called Ismoil Somoni Peak and situated in Tajikistan. It is a height of 7,495 meters.
1935 - Sir Malcolm Campbell reaches a speed of 304.331 miles per hour on the Bonneville Salt Flats in Utah. He becomes the first person to drive and automobile over 300 mph.
1939 - France, the United Kingdom, New Zealand, and Australia declare war on Germany, forming the Allied powers.
1941 - Karl Fritzsch, deputy camp commandant of the Auschwitz concentration camp, experiments with the use of Zyklon B ins the gassing of Soviet prisoners of war.
1944 - Diarist Anne Frank and her family are placed on the last transport train from Westerbork to Auschwitz, arriving almost three days later.
1962 - American poet, whose work encompasses 2,900 poems, E. E. Cummings dies at the age of 67.
1967 - Francis Ouimet, winner of the 1913 U. S. Open as an amateur, and was the first American elected Captain of the Royal and Ancient Golf Club of St. Andrews, passes away at the age of 74.
1970 - American football coach and well-known head coach of the Green Bay Packers, Vince Lombardi, passes away at the age of 57.
1971 - Qatar becomes an independent state.
1976 - The American Viking 2 spacecraft lands at Utopia Planitia on Mars.
1982 - Andrew McMahon, pianist, vocalist, and songwriter for piano rock bands Something Corporate and Jack's Mannequin, is born.
1986 - American professional snowboarder and skateboarder, and two-time Olympic gold medalist, Shaun White is born.