It is the 258th day of the year and there are 107 days remaining until the new year.
1616 - The first non-aristocratic, free public school in Europe is opened in Frascati, Italy.
1789 - The United States Department of State is established, formerly known as the Department of Foreign Affairs.
1821 - Guatemala, El Salvador, Honduras, Nicaragua, and Costa Rica, jointly declare their independence from Spain.
1831 - The locomotive John Bull operates for the first time in New Jersey, on the Camden and Amboy Railroad.
1835 - The HMS Beagle, with Charles Darwin aboard, reaches the Galapagos Islands.
1857 - William Howard Taft is born, he will become the 27th President of the United States.
1862 - Confederate forces capture Harpers Ferry, Virginia.
1916 - Tanks are used for the first time in battle, at the Battle of the Somme during the First World War.
1935 - Nazi Germany adopts a new national flag with the swastika.
1938 - Gaylord Perry, American baseball right-handed pitcher, who pitched for 22 seasons with eight different teams, is born.
1940 - It is the climax of the Battle of Britain, when the Royal Air Force shoots down large numbers of Luftwaffe aircraft.
1944 - Franklin Roosevelt and Winston Churchill, meet in Quebec as part of the Octagon Conference to discuss strategy.
1944 - The Battle of Peleliu begins, as the United States 1st Marine Division and the 81st Infantry Division hit White and Orange beaches under heavy fire from Japanese infantry and artillery.
1948 - The F-86 Sabre sets the world aircraft speed record at 671 miles per hour or 1,080 km/h.
1959 - Nikita Kruschev becomes the first Soviet leader to visit the United States.
1963 - The 16th Street Baptist Church bombing occurs, as four children are killed at an African-American church in Birmingham, Alabama.
1966 - Lyndon B. Johnson, responding to a sniper attack at the University of Texas at Austin, writes a letter to Congress urging the enactment of gun control legislation.
1968 - The Soviet Zond 5 spaceship, is launched, becoming the first spacecraft to fly around the Moon and re-enter the Earth's atmosphere.
1978 - German aircraft designer and manufacturer, Wilhelm Messerschmitt, dies at the age of 80.
1981 - The Senate Judiciary Committee unanimously approves Sandra Day O'Connor to become the first female justice of the Supreme Court of the United States.
1981 - The John Bull becomes the oldest operable steam locomotive in the world, when the Smithsonian Institution operates it under its own power right outside of Washington, D.C.
1990 - France announces it will send 4,000 troops to the Persian Gulf.
2004 - National Hockey League commissioner Gary Bettman announce the lockout of the players union and cessation of operations by the head office.
2008 - Lehman Brothers, a global financial services firm, files for Chapter 11 bankruptcy, the largest bankruptcy in United States history.