It is the 270th day of the year with 95 days remaining until the end of the year.
1066 - William the Conqueror and his army, set sail from the mouth of the Somme River, beginning the Norman Conquest of England.
1540 - The Society of Jesus, The Jesuits, receives its charter from Pope Paul III.
1590 - Pope Urban VII, dies at the age of 69 only 13 days after being chosen as the Pope, making his reign the shortest papacy in history.
1777 - For one day, Lancaster, Pennsylvania is the capital of the United States.
1821 - Mexico gains its independence from the Spanish Crown.
1822 - Jean-Francois Champollion announces that he has deciphered the Rosetta Stone.
1825 - The Stockton and Darlington Railway opens, and begins operation of the world's first service of locomotive-hauled passenger trains.
1905 - The physics journal Annalen der Physik published Albert Einstein's paper, "Does the Inertia of a Body Depend Upon Its Energy Content?", introducing the equation E=mc².
1908 - The first production of the Ford Model T automobile was built at the Piquette Plant in Detroit, Michigan.
1930 - Bobby Jones wins the U.S. Amateur Championship to complete the Grand Slam of golf. The old structure of the grand slam was the U.S. Open, British Open, U.S. Amateur, and British Amateur.
1937 - The Balinese Tiger is declared extinct.
1940 - The Tripartite Pact is signed by Germany, Japan, and Italy in Berlin.
1942 - Last day of the Matanikau action on Guadalcanal as U.S. Marines barely escape after being surrounded by Japanese forces near the river.
1944 - The Kassel Mission results in the largest loss by the United States Army Air Force group on any mission in World War II.
1956 - USAF Captain Milburn G. Apt becomes the first man to exceed Mach 3 while flying the Bell X-2. Shortly thereafter, the craft goes out of control and crashes.
1959 - Nearly 5000 people die on the main Japanese island of Honshu as the result of a typhoon.
1964 - The Warren Commission releases its report, concluding the Lee Harvey Oswald, acting alone, assassinated President John F. Kennedy.
1979 - The United States Department of Education, receives final approval from Congress to become the 13the U.S. Cabinet agency.
1995 - The Government of the United States, unveils the first of its redesigned bank notes with the $100 bill featuring a larger portrait of Benjamin Franklin slightly off-center.
2008 - CNSA astronaut Zhai Zhigang becomes the first Chinese person to perform a spacewalk while flying on Shenzhou 7.