It is the 68th day of the year with 297 days remaining.
1765 - After a campaign by the writer Voltaire, judges in Paris posthumously exonerate Jean Calas of murdering his son. Calas had been tortured and executed in 1762 on the charge, though his son may have actually committed suicide.
1841 - The U.S. Supreme Court rules that captive Africans who had seized control of the ship carrying them had been taken into slavery illegal.
1842 - The first documented discovery of gold in California occurs at Rancho San Francisco, six years before the Gold Rush.
1847 - The first large-scale amphibious assault in U.S. history is launched in the Siege of Veracruz.
1862 - The USS Monitor and CSS Virginia (USS Merrimack) fight to draw in the Battle of Hampton Roads, the first battle between two ironclad warships.
1916 - Pancho Villa leads nearly 500 Mexican raiders in an attack against Columbus, New Mexico.
1933 - Franklin Roosevelt submits the Emergency Banking Act to Congress, the first of his New Deal policies.
1954 - CBS television broadcast the See It Now episode, "A Report on Senator Joseph McCarthy," produced by Fred Friendly.
1959 - The Barbie doll makes its debut at the American International Toy Fair in New York City.
1960 - Dr. Belding Hibbard Scribner implants for the first time a shunt he invented into a patient, which allows the patient to receive hemodialysis on a regular bassis.
1990 - Dr. Antonia Novello is sworn in as Surgeon General of the United States, becoming the first female and Hispanic American to serve in that position.
2011 - Space Shuttle Discovery, makes its final landing after nearly 39 flights in operation.