It is the 69th day of the year, with 296 days remaining.
1762 - French Huguenot Jean Calas, who had been wrongly convicted of killing his son, dies after being tortured by authorities; the event inspired Voltaire, to begin a campaign for religious tolerance and legal reform.
1804 - In St. Louis, Missouri, a formal ceremony is conducted to transfer ownership of the Louisiana Territroy from France to the U.S.
1848 - The Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo is ratified by the United States Senate, ending the Mexican-American War.
1876 - Alexander Graham Bell, makes the first successful telephone call, by saying "Mr. Watson, come here, I want to see you."
1922 - Mahatma Gandhi is arrested in India, tried for sedition, and sentenced to six years in prison, only to be released after nearly two years for an appendicitis operation.
1945 - The U.S. Army Air Force firebombs Tokyo, and the resulting firestorm kills more than 100,000 people, mostly civilians.
1959 - Fearing an abduction attempt by China, 300,000 Tibetans surround the Dalai Lama's palace to prevent his removal.
1969 - In Memphis, Tennessee, James Eral Ray pleads guilty to assassinating Martin Luther King Jr. He later retracts his plea.
1970 - Captain Ernest Medina is charged by the U.S. Military with My Lai war crimes.
2006 - The Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter arrives at Mars.