It is the 64th day of the year, with only 301 days remaining until the new year.
363 - Roman Emperor Julian, moves from Antioch with an army of 90,000 to attack the Sassanid Empire, in a campaign which would bring about his own death.
1770 - Five Americans, including Crispus Attucks (a black man), and a boy are killed by trigger happy British troops in an event that led to the outbreak of the Revolutionary War five years later. It is known as the Boston Massacre.
1836 - Samuel Colt makes the first production-model revolver, the .34-caliber.
1872 - George Westinghouse patents the air brake.
1933 - President Franklin Roosevelt declares a "bank holiday," closing all U.S. banks and freezing all financial transactions.
1933 - Adolf Hitler's Nazi Party receives 43.0% at the Reichstag elections. This later allows the Nazis to pass the Enabling Act and establish a dictatorship.
1946 - Winston Churchill uses the phrase "Iron Curtain" in his speech at Westminster College, Missouri.