Today is the 31st day of the year, with only 334 days remaining until the end of the year.
1606 - Guy Fawkes is executed for his plotting and involvement in the Gunpowder Plot against Parliament and James I of England.
1747 - The first venereal diseases clinic opens at London Lock Hospital.
1848 - John C. Fremont is court-martialed for mutiny and disobeying orders.
1865 - The United States Congress passes the Thirteenth Amendment to the Constitution, abolishing slavery, submitting it to the states for ratification.
1865 - Confederate General Robert E. Lee, becomes general-in-chief.
1876 - The United States orders all Native Americans to move into reservations.
1915 - Germany uses poison gas against Russia.
1917 - Germany announces that is U-boats will resume unrestricted submarine warfare after a two-year hiatus.
1929 - The Soviet Union exiles Leon Trotsky.
1930 - 3M begins marketing Scotch Tape.
1944 - During Anzio campaign 1st Ranger Battalion, Darby's Rangers, is destroyed behind enemy lines in a heavily outnumbered encounter at Battle of Cisterna, Italy.
1945 - US Army private Eddie Slovik is executed for desertion, the first such execution of an American soldier since the civil War.
1950 - President Harry Truman announces a program to develop the hydrogen bomb.
1958 - Explorer 1 is the first successful launch of an American satellite into orbit.
1968 - Viet Cong attack the United States embassy in Saigon, and other attacks, in the early morning hours, later grouped together as the Tet Offensive.
1990 - Interestingly enough, the first McDonald's in the Soviet Union opens in Moscow.